...1
This section was added in the third printing of this book (September 2013).
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... numbers.1.1
Physicists and mathematicians use $ i$ instead of $ j$ to denote $ \sqrt{-1}$ .
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... unknowns.2.1
``Linear'' in this context means that the unknowns are multiplied only by constants--they may not be multiplied by each other or raised to any power other than $ 1$ (e.g., not squared or cubed or raised to the $ 1/5$ power). Linear systems of $ N$ equations in $ N$ unknowns are very easy to solve compared to nonlinear systems of $ N$ equations in $ N$ unknowns. For example, Matlab and Octave can easily handle them. You learn all about this in a course on Linear Algebra which is highly recommended for anyone interested in getting involved with signal processing. Linear algebra also teaches you all about matrices, which are introduced only briefly in Appendix H.
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... numbers2.2
(multiplication, addition, division, distributivity of multiplication over addition, commutativity of multiplication and addition)
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...field.2.3
See, e.g., Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics (http://mathworld.wolfram.com/) for definitions of any unfamiliar mathematical terms such as a field (which is described, for example, at the easily guessed URL http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Field.html).
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... tool.2.4
Proofs for the fundamental theorem of algebra have a long history involving many of the great names in classical mathematics. The first known rigorous proof was by Gauss based on earlier efforts by Euler and Lagrange. (Gauss also introduced the term ``complex number.'') An alternate proof was given by Argand based on the ideas of d'Alembert. For a summary of the history, see http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/HistTopics/Fund_theorem_of_algebra.html
(the first Google search result for ``fundamental theorem of algebra'' in July of 2002).
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...3.1
That the rationals are dense in the reals is easy to show using decimal expansions. Let $ r_1$ and $ r_2$ denote any two distinct, positive, irrational real numbers. Since $ r_1$ and $ r_2$ are distinct, their decimal expansions must differ in some digit, say the $ n$ th. Without loss of generality, assume $ r_2>r_1$ . Form the rational number $ q_2$ by zeroing all digits in the decimal expansion of $ r_2$ after the $ n$ th. Then $ r_2>q_2>r_1$ , as needed. For two negative real numbers, we can negate them, use the same argument, and negate the result. For one positive and one negative real number, the rational number zero lies between them.
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... as3.2
This was computed via N[Sqrt[2],60] in Mathematica. Symbolic mathematics programs, such as Mathematica, Maple (offered as a Matlab extension), maxima (a free, GNU descendant of the original Macsyma, written in Common Lisp, and available at http://maxima.sourceforge.net), GiNaC (the Maple-replacement used in the Octave Symbolic Manipulation Toolbox), or Yacas (another free, open-source program with similar goals as Mathematica), are handy tools for cranking out any number of digits in irrational numbers such as $ \sqrt{2}$ . In Yacas (as of Version 1.0.55), the syntax is
Precision(60)
N(Sqrt(2))
Of course, symbolic math programs can do much more than this, such as carrying out algebraic manipulations on polynomials and solving systems of symbolic equations in closed form.
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... rule,3.3
We will use the chain rule from calculus without proof. Note that the use of calculus is beyond the normal level of this book. Since calculus is only needed at this one point in the DFT-math story, the reader should not be discouraged if its usage seems like ``magic''. Calculus will not be needed at all for practical applications of the DFT, such as spectrum analysis, discussed in Chapter 8.
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....3.4
Logarithms are reviewed in Appendix F.
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... number3.5
A number is said to be transcendental if it is not a root of any polynomial with integer coefficients, i.e., it is not an algebraic number of any degree. (Rational numbers are algebraic numbers of degree 1; irrational numbers include transcendental numbers and algebraic numbers of degree greater than 1, such as $ \sqrt{2}$ which is of degree 2.) See http://mathworld.wolfram.com/TranscendentalNumber.html for further discussion.
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... by3.6
In Mathematica, the first 50 digits of $ e$ may be computed by the expression N[E,50] (``evaluate numerically the reserved-constant E to 50 decimal places''). In the Octave Symbolic Manipulation Toolbox (part of Octave Forge), one may type ``digits(50); Exp(1)''.
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... unity.3.7
Sometimes we see $ W_M\isdef e^{-j2\pi/M}$ , which is the complex conjugate of the definition we have used here. It is similarly a primitive $ M$ th root, since powers of it will generate all other $ M$ th roots.
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... geo\-metry.3.8
See, for example, http://www-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov/stargaze/Strig5.htm.
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... oscillator.4.1
A mass-spring oscillator analysis is given at
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/Mass_Spring_Oscillator_Analysis.html (from the next book [70] in the music signal processing series).
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... (LTI4.2
A system $ S$ is said to be linear if for any two input signals $ x_1(t)$ and $ x_2(t)$ , we have $ S[x_1(t) + x_2(t)] = S[x_1(t)] + S[x_2(t)]$ . A system is said to be time invariant if $ y(t)=S[x(t)]$ implies $ S[x(t-\tau)] = y(t-\tau)$ . This subject is developed in detail in the second book [70] of the music signal processing series, available on-line at
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/.
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... soundfield,4.3
For a definition, see
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/pasp/Mean_Free_Path.html
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...combfilter.4.4
Technically, Fig.4.3 shows the feedforward comb filter, also called the ``inverse comb filter'' [77]. The longer names are meant to distinguish it from the feedback comb filter, in which the delay output is fed back around the delay line and summed with the delay input instead of the input being fed forward around the delay line and summed with its output. (A diagram and further discussion, including how time-varying comb filters create a flanging effect, can be found at http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/pasp/Feedback_Comb_Filters.html.) The frequency response of the feedforward comb filter is the inverse of that of the feedback comb filter (one can cancel the effect of the other), hence the name ``inverse comb filter.'' Frequency-response analysis of digital filters is developed in [70] (available online).
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... name.4.5
While there is no reason it should be obvious at this point, the comb-filter gain varies in fact sinusoidally as a function of frequency.
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... dc4.6
``dc'' means ``direct current'' and is an electrical engineering term for ``frequency 0 ''.
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... dB.4.7
Recall that a gain factor $ g$ is converted to decibels (dB) by the formula $ 20\log_{10}(g)$ . See §F.2 for a review.
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... practice.4.8
An important variant of FM called feedback FM, in which a single oscillator phase-modulates itself, simply does not work if true frequency modulation is implemented.
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... section.4.9
The mathematical derivation of FM spectra is included here as a side note. No further use will be made of it in this book.
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...Watson44,4.10
Existence of the Laurent expansion follows from the fact that the generating function is a product of an exponential function, $ \exp(\beta z/2)$ , and an exponential function inverted with respect to the unit circle, $ \exp(-0.5\beta/z)$ . It is readily verified by direct differentiation in the complex plane that the exponential is an entire function of $ z$ (analytic at all finite points in the complex plane) [16], and therefore the inverted exponential is analytic everywhere except at $ z=0$ . The desired Laurent expansion may be obtained, in principle, by multiplying the one-sided series for the exponential and inverted exponential together. The exponential series has the well known form $ \exp(z) =
1+z+z^2/2!+z^3/3!+\cdots\,$ . The series for the inverted exponential can be obtained by inverting again ( $ z\leftarrow 1/z$ ), obtaining the appropriate exponential series, and inverting each term.
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...phasor),4.11
Another example of phasor analysis can be found at
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/Phasor_Analysis.html
(from the next book in this music signal processing series).
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... signal|textbf.4.12
In complex variables, a function is ``analytic'' at a point $ z_0\in{\bf C}$ if it is differentiable of all orders at each point in some neighborhood of $ z_0$ [16]. Therefore, one might expect an ``analytic signal'' to be any signal which is differentiable of all orders at any point in time, i.e., one that admits a fully valid Taylor expansion about any point in time. However, all bandlimited signals (being sums of finite-frequency sinusoids) are analytic in the complex-variables sense at every point in time. Therefore, the signal processing term ``analytic signal'' refers instead to a signal having ``no negative frequencies''. Equivalently, one could say that the spectrum of an analytic signal is ``causal in the frequency domain''.
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... shift.4.13
This operation is actually used in some real-world AM and FM radio receivers (particularly in digital radio receivers). The signal comes in centered about a high ``carrier frequency'' (such as 101 MHz for radio station FM 101), so it looks very much like a sinusoid at frequency 101 MHz. (The frequency modulation only varies the carrier frequency in a relatively tiny interval about 101 MHz. The total FM bandwidth including all the FM ``sidebands'' is about 100 kHz. AM bands are only 10kHz wide.) By delaying the signal by 1/4 cycle, a good approximation to the imaginary part of the analytic signal is created, and its instantaneous amplitude and frequency are then simple to compute from the analytic signal.
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...demodulation4.14
Demodulation is the process of recovering the modulation signal. For amplitude modulation (AM), the modulated signal is of the form $ y(t) = A(t) \cos(\omega_c
t)$ , where $ \omega_c$ is the ``carrier frequency'', $ A(t)=[1+\mu
x(t)]\geq 0$ is the amplitude envelope (modulation), $ x(t)$ is the modulation signal we wish to recover (the audio signal being broadcast in the case of AM radio), and $ \mu$ is the modulation index for AM.
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...4.15
The notation $ y(n)$ denotes a single sample of the signal $ y$ at sample $ n$ , while the notation $ y(\cdot)$ or simply $ y$ denotes the entire signal for all time.
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... projection4.16
The coefficient of projection of a signal $ y$ onto another signal $ x$ can be thought of as a measure of how much of $ x$ is present in $ y$ . We will consider this topic in some detail later on.
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...vector5.1
We'll use an underline to emphasize the vector interpretation, but there is no difference between $ x$ and $ \underline{x}$ . For purposes of this book, a signal is the same thing as a vector.
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... hear,5.2
Actually, two-sample signals with variable amplitude and spacing between the samples provide very interesting tests of pitch perception, especially when the samples have opposite sign [57].
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... numbers.5.3
More generally, scalars are often defined as members of some mathematical field--usually the same field used for the vector elements (coordinates, signal samples).
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... type,5.4
As we'll discuss in §5.7 below, vectors of the ``same type'' are typically taken to be members of the same vector space.
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... samples:5.5
In this section, $ x$ denotes a signal, while in the previous sections, we used an underline ( $ \underline{x}$ ) to emphasize the vector interpretation of a signal. One might worry that it is now too easy to confuse signals (vectors) and scale factors (scalars), but this is usually not the case: signal names are generally taken from the end of the Roman alphabet ($ u,v,w,x,y$ ), while scalar symbols are chosen from the beginning of the Roman ( $ a,b,c,\ldots$ ) and Greek ( $ \alpha, \beta,
\gamma,\ldots$ ) alphabets. Also, formulas involving signals are typlically specified on the sample level, so that signals are usually indexed ($ x(n)$ ) or subscripted ($ x_n$ ).
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... units.5.6
The energy of a pressure wave is the integral over time and area of the squared pressure divided by the wave impedance the wave is traveling in. The energy of a velocity wave is the integral over time of the squared velocity times the wave impedance. In audio work, a signal $ x$ is typically a list of pressure samples derived from a microphone signal, or it might be samples of force from a piezoelectric transducer, velocity from a magnetic guitar pickup, and so on. In all of these cases, the total physical energy associated with the signal is proportional to the sum of squared signal samples. Physical connections in signal processing are explored more fully in Book III of the Music Signal Processing Series [71], (available online).
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... removed:5.7
For reasons beyond the scope of this book, when the sample mean $ \mu_x$ is estimated as the average value of the same $ N$ samples used to compute the sample variance $ \sigma_x^2$ , the sum should be divided by $ N-1$ rather than $ N$ to avoid a bias [34].
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... vector.5.8
You might wonder why the norm of $ \underline{x}$ is not written as $ \vert\underline{x}\vert$ . There would be no problem with this since $ \vert\underline{x}\vert$ is otherwise undefined for vectors. However, the historically adopted notation is instead $ \vert\underline{x}\vert$ .
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... by5.9
From some points of view, it is more elegant to conjugate the first operand in the definition of the inner product. However, for explaining the DFT, conjugating the second operand is better. The former case arises when expressing inner product $ \langle \underline{u},\underline{v}\rangle $ as a vector operation $ \underline{v}^\ast\underline{u}$ , where $ \underline{v}^\ast\isdeftext \overline{\underline{v}}^{\hbox{\tiny T}}$ denotes the Hermitian transpose of the vector $ \underline{v}$ . Either convention works out fine, but it is best to choose one and stick with it forever.
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... product:5.10
Remember that a norm must be a real-valued function of a signal (vector).
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...5.11
Note that we have dropped the underbar notation for signals/vectors such as $ \underline{x}=x$ and $ \underline{y}=y$ . While this is commonly done, it is now possible to confuse vectors and scalars. The context should keep everything clear. Also, symbols for scalars tend to be chosen from the beginning of the alphabet (Roman or Greek), such as $ a,b,\alpha,\beta,\ldots$ , while symbols for vectors/signals are normally chosen from letters near the end, such as $ u,v,w,x,y$ --all of which we have seen up to now. In later sections, the underbar notation will continue to be used when it seems to add clarity.
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... definition,5.12
Note that, in this section, $ x$ denotes an entire signal while $ x_n=x(n)$ denotes the $ n$ th sample of that signal. It would be clearer to use $ x(n)$ , but the expressions below would become messier. In other contexts, outside of this section, $ x_i$ might instead denote the $ i$ th signal $ \underline{x}_i$ from a set of signals.
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...Noble.5.13
An excellent collection of free downloadable course videos by Prof. Strang at MIT is available at http://web.mit.edu/18.06/www/Video/video-fall-99-new.html
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...).6.1
The Matlab code for generating this figure is given in §I.4.1.
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... unity.6.2
The notations $ W_N$ , $ W_N^k$ , and $ W_N^{nk}$ are common in the digital signal processing literature. Sometimes $ W_N$ is defined with a negative exponent, i.e., $ W_N \isdeftext
\exp(-j2\pi/N)$ .
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... by6.3
As introduced in §1.3, the notation $ x(\cdot)$ means the whole signal $ x(n)$ , $ n=0,1,\ldots,N-1$ , also written as simply $ x$ .
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....6.4
More precisely, $ \hbox{\sc DFT}_k()$ is a length $ N$ finite-impulse-response (FIR) digital filter. See §8.3 for related discussion.
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... computed,6.5
We call this the aliased sinc function to distinguish it from the sinc function sinc$ (x)\isdeftext \sin(\pi x)/(\pi x)$ .
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...dftfilterb6.6
The Matlab code for this figure is given in §I.4.2.
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....6.7
Spectral leakage is essentially equivalent to (i.e., a Fourier dual of) the Gibb's phenomenon for truncated Fourier series expansions (see §B.3), which some of us studied in high school. As more sinusoids are added to the expansion, the error waveform increases in frequency, and decreases in signal energy, but its peak value does not converge to zero. Instead, in the limit as infinitely many sinusoids are added to the Fourier-series sum, the peak error converges to an isolated point. Isolated points have ``measure zero'' under integration, and therefore have no effect on integrals such as the one which calculates Fourier-series coefficients.
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....7.1
The notation $ [a,b)$ denotes the half-open interval on the real line from $ a$ to $ b$ . Thus the interval includes $ a$ but not $ b$ .
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... spectra7.2
A spectrum is mathematically identical to a signal, since both are just sequences of $ N$ complex numbers. However, for clarity, we generally use ``signal'' when the sequence index is considered a time index, and ``spectrum'' when the index is associated with successive frequency samples.
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...:7.3
The set of all integers is denoted $ {\bf Z}$ .
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... convolution).7.4
To simulate acyclic convolution using cyclic convolution, as is appropriate for the simulation of sampled continuous-time systems, sufficient zero padding is used so that nonzero samples do not ``wrap around'' as a result of the shifting of $ y$ in the definition of convolution. Zero padding is discussed later in this chapter (§7.2.7).
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...7.5
See §8.3 for an introduction to the digital-filter point of view.
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... exponential.7.6
Normally, in practice, a first-order recursive filter would be used to provide such an exponential impulse response very efficiently in hardware or software (see Book II [70] of this series for details). However, the impulse response of any linear, time-invariant filter can be recorded and used for implementation via convolution. The only catch is that recursive filters generally have infinitely long impulse responses (true exponential decays). Therefore, it is necessary to truncate the impulse response when it decays enough that the remainder is negligible.
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....7.7
Matched filtering is briefly discussed in §8.4.
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... place.7.8
This is the also basis of the puzzle ``multiply your age times 7 times 1443.''
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....7.9
The symbol ``$ \equiv$ '' means ``is equivalent to''.
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... domain.7.10
Similarly, zero padding in the frequency domain gives what we may call ``periodic interpolation'' in the time domain which is exact in the DFT case only for periodic signals having a time-domain period equal to the DFT length. (See §6.7.)
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... times.7.11
You might wonder why we need this since all indexing in $ {\bf C}^N$ is defined modulo $ N$ already. The answer is that $ \hbox{\sc Repeat}_L()$ formally expresses a mapping from the space $ {\bf C}^N$ of length $ N$ signals to the space $ {\bf C}^M$ of length $ M=LN$ signals. The $ \hbox{\sc Repeat}_L()$ operator could alternatively be defined as the scaling operator $ \hbox{\sc Scale}_{L,n}(x) = x(n)$ , $ n=0,1,2,
\ldots,NL-1$ , where $ L$ is any positive integer (note the increase in signal length from $ N$ to $ NL$ samples). Such a definition would better suggest the related continuous-time Fourier theorems regarding time/frequency scaling (see Appendix C, especially §C.2).
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....7.12
The function $ f(x) = 1/x$ is also considered odd, ignoring the singularity at $ x=0$ .
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... transform,7.13
The discrete cosine transform (DCT) used most often in applications is defined somewhat differently (see §A.6.1), but this is one variant.
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....7.14
To consider $ \omega_k$ as radians per second instead of radians per sample, just replace $ \Delta$ by $ \Delta T$ so that the delay is in seconds instead of samples, i.e., $ \exp(-j(2\pi k/N)(\Delta))
=\exp(-j(2\pi k/NT)(\Delta T))
=\exp(-j\omega_k \Delta T)$ .
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... response.7.15
See §8.3 and/or Book II [70] of the music signal processing book series for an introduction to digital filters.
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... Transform7.16
An FFT is just a fast implementation of the DFT. See Appendix A for details and pointers.
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... FFT.7.17
These results were obtained using the program Octave, version 2.9.9, running on a Linux PC with a 2.8GHz Pentium CPU, and Matlab, version 5.2, running on a Windows PC with an 800MHz Athlon CPU.
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...table:ffttable.7.18
These results were obtained using Matlab v5.2 running on a Windows PC with an 800MHz Athlon CPU.
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...dual7.19
The dual of a Fourier operation is obtained by interchanging time and frequency.
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... time.7.20
Signal processing with a physical interpretation is addressed in Book III [71] of the music signal processing series.
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....7.21
You might be concerned about what it means when $ {F(k)}\overline{V(k)}/N$ has an imaginary part. This happens when the force $ f(t)$ drives a so-called ``reactive'' load such as a mass or spring. For the details, see Book III [71] or any text on classical network theory or circuit theory. When the driving force $ f(t)$ works against a real resistance $ R>0$ , then $ f(t) = R\,v(t)$ (see §F.3), so that the power is $ f(t)v(t)=R\,v^2(t)=f^2(t)/R$ , and in the frequency domain, $ F(\omega)=R\,V(\omega)$ so that the spectral power is proportional to $ {F(\omega)}\overline{V(\omega)}=R\,\vert V(\omega)\vert^2=\vert F(\omega)\vert^2/R$ . Thus, in the case of a real driving-point impedance $ R$ , the spectral power is always real and nonnegative.
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... frequency7.22
The folding frequency is defined as half the sampling rate $ f_s/2$ . It may also be called the Nyquist limit. The Nyquist rate, on the other hand, means the sampling rate, not half the sampling rate.
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... FIR7.23
FIR stands for ``Finite Impulse Response.'' Digital filtering concepts and terminology are introduced in §8.3 and more completely in Book II [70] of the music signal processing series.
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...CooleyAndTukey65.8.1
While a length $ N$ DFT requires approximately $ N^2$ arithmetic operations, a Cooley-Tukey FFT requires closer to $ N \lg N=NK$ operations when $ N=2^K$ is a power of 2, where $ \lg N$ denotes the log-base-2 of $ N$ . Appendix A provides an introduction to Cooley-Tukey FFT algorithms in §A.1.
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....8.2
Say ``doc fft'' in Matlab for an overview of how a specific FFT algorithm is chosen.
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...SASP8.3
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/sasp/Classic_Blackman.html
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... Octave8.4
http://www.octave.org/
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... Toolbox,8.5
http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk/help/toolbox/signal/signal.shtml
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... phoneme,8.6
A phoneme is a single elementary sound in speech, such as a single vowel sound like the `a' in ``bat'' or the `s' in ``sit''.
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... system8.7
Linearity and time invariance are introduced in the second book of this series [70].
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...estimator8.8
In signal processing, a ``hat'' often denotes an estimated quantity. Thus, $ {\hat r}_{xy}(l)$ is an estimate of $ r_{xy}(l)$ .
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... value8.9
For present purposes, the expected value $ r_{xy}(l)$ may be found by averaging an infinite number of cross-correlations $ {\hat r}^u_{xy}(l)$ computed using different segments of $ x$ and $ y$ . Both $ x$ and $ y$ must be infinitely long, of course, and all stationary processes are infinitely long. Otherwise, their statistics could not be time invariant.
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... PSD:8.10
To clarify, we are using the word ``sample'' with two different meanings. In addition to the usual meaning wherein a continuous time or frequency axis is made discrete, a statistical ``sample'' refers to a set of observations from some presumed random process. Estimated statistics based on such a statistical sample are then called ``sample statistics'', such as the sample mean, sample variance, and so on.
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....8.11
See Eq.$ \,$ (7.1) for a definition of $ \hbox{\sc Flip}()$ .
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....8.12
Since phase information is discarded ( $ x_m\star x_m\leftrightarrow \vert X_m(\omega_k)\vert^2$ ), the zero-padding can go before or after $ x_m$ , or both, without affecting the results.
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... kernel;8.13
By the convolution theorem dual, windowing in the time domain is convolution (smoothing) in the frequency domain (§7.4.6). Since a triangle is the convolution of a rectangle with itself, its transform is sinc$ ^2$ in the continuous-time case (cf. Appendix D). In the discrete-time case, it is proportional to $ \hbox{\sc Alias}_{2\pi/T}($sinc$ ^2)$ .
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... compositeA.1
In this context, ``highly composite'' means ``a product of many prime factors.'' For example, the number $ 1024=2^{10}$ is highly composite since it is a power of 2. The number $ 360=2\cdot 3^2\cdot 4\cdot 5$ is also composite, but it requires prime factors other than 2. Prime numbers $ (2,3,5,7,11,13,17,\ldots)$ are not composite at all.
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...A.2
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooley-Tukey_FFT_algorithm.
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...DuhamelAndVetterli90.A.3
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Split_radix
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...Good58,Thomas63,KolbaAndParks77,McClellanAndRader79,BurrusAndParks85,WikiPFA.A.4
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime-factor_FFT_algorithm for an introduction.
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...A.5
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime-factor_FFT_algorithm#Re-indexing
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...GoldAndRader69.A.6
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluestein's_FFT_algorithm for another derivation and description of Bluestein's FFT algorithm.
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... unity,A.7
Note that $ W$ is the complex-conjugate of $ W_N$ used in §A.1.1 above.
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... length.A.8
Obtaining an exact integer number of samples per period can be arranged using pitch detection and resampling of the periodic signal. A time-varying pitch requires time-varying resampling [74]--see Appendix D. However, when a signal is resampled for this purpose, one can generally choose a power of 2 for the number of samples per period.
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... gain.A.9
This result is well known in the field of image processing. The DCT performs almost as well as the optimal Karhunen-Loève Transform (KLT) when analyzing certain Gaussian stochastic processes as the transform size goes to infinity. (In the KLT, the basis functions are taken to be the eigenvectors of the autocorrelation matrix of the input signal block. As a result, the transform coefficients are decorrelated in the KLT, leading to maximum energy concentration and optimal coding gain.) However, the DFT provides a similar degree of optimality for large block sizes $ N$ . For practical spectral analysis and processing of audio signals, there is typically no reason to prefer the DCT over the DFT.
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... DCT-II)A.10
For a discussion of eight or so DCT variations, see the Wikipedia page:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discrete_cosine_transform
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... variable,B.1
We define the DTFT using normalized radian frequency $ \tilde{\omega}\isdef \omega T\in[-\pi,\pi)$ .
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... seconds,B.2
A signal $ x(t)$ is said to be periodic with period $ P$ if $ x(t+P)=x(t)$ for all $ t\in{\bf R}$ .
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... isB.3
To obtain precisely this result, it is necessary to define $ \delta(t)$ via a limiting pulse converging to time 0 from the right of time 0, as we have done in Eq.$ \,$ (B.3).
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... principle|textbf.C.1
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle in quantum physics applies to any dual properties of a particle. For example, the position and velocity of an electron are oft-cited as such duals. An electron is described, in quantum mechanics, by a probability wave packet. Therefore, the position of an electron in space can be defined as the midpoint of the amplitude envelope of its wave function; its velocity, on the other hand, is determined by the frequency of the wave packet. To accurately measure the frequency, the packet must be very long in space, to provide many cycles of oscillation under the envelope. But this means the location in space is relatively uncertain. In more precise mathematical terms, the probability wave function for velocity is proportional to the spatial Fourier transform of the probability wave for position. I.e., they are exact Fourier duals. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is therefore a Fourier property of fundamental particles described by waves [20]. This of course includes all matter and energy in the Universe.
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... filter.C.2
An allpass filter has unity gain and arbitrary delay at each frequency.
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... public.D.1
http://cnx.org/content/m0050/latest/
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... positionD.2
More typically, each sample represents the instantaneous velocity of the speaker. Here's why: Most microphones are transducers from acoustic pressure to electrical voltage, and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) produce numerical samples which are proportional to voltage. Thus, digital samples are normally proportional to acoustic pressure deviation (force per unit area on the microphone, with ambient air pressure subtracted out). When digital samples are converted to analog form by digital-to-analog conversion (DAC), each sample is converted to an electrical voltage which then drives a loudspeaker (in audio applications). Typical loudspeakers use a ``voice-coil'' to convert applied voltage to electromotive force on the speaker which applies pressure on the air via the speaker cone. Since the acoustic impedance of air is a real number, wave pressure is directly proportional wave velocity. Since the speaker must move in contact with the air during wave generation, we may conclude that digital signal samples correspond most closely to the velocity of the speaker, not its position. The situation is further complicated somewhat by the fact that typical speakers do not themselves have a real driving-point impedance. However, for an ``ideal'' microphone and speaker, we should get samples proportional to speaker velocity and hence to air pressure. Well below resonance, the real part of the radiation impedance of the pushed air should dominate, as long as the excursion does not exceed the linear interval of cone displacement.
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....D.3
Mathematically, $ X(j\omega)$ can be allowed to be nonzero over points $ \vert\omega\vert\geq\pi/T$ provided that the set of all such points have measure zero in the sense of Lebesgue integration. However, such distinctions do not arise for practical signals which are always finite in extent and which therefore have continuous Fourier transforms. This is why we specialize the sampling theorem to the case of continuous-spectrum signals.
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... pulse,E.1
Thanks to Miller Puckette for suggesting this example.
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... energy).E.2
One joke along these lines, due, I'm told, to Professor Bracewell at Stanford, is that ``since the telephone is bandlimited to 3kHz, and since bandlimited signals cannot be time limited, it follows that one cannot hang up the telephone''.
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... belF.1
The ``bel'' is named after Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor of the telephone.
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... intensity,F.2
Intensity is physically power per unit area. Bels may also be defined in terms of energy, or power which is energy per unit time. Since sound is always measured over some area by a microphone diaphragm, its physical power is conventionally normalized by area, giving intensity. Similarly, the force applied by sound to a microphone diaphragm is normalized by area to give pressure (force per unit area).
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... ScaleF.3
This section was added in the third printing of this book (September 2013).
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... ScaleF.4
This section was added in the third printing of this book (September 2013).
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...LobdellAndAllen07.F.5
For other software implementations, see,e.g.,
http://kokkinizita.linuxaudio.org/linuxaudio/,
https://github.com/x42/meters.lv2
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... isF.6
The bar was originally defined as one ``atmosphere'' (atmospheric pressure at sea level), but now a microbar is defined to be exactly one dyne$ /$cm$ ^2$ , where a dyne is the amount of force required to accelerate a gram by one centimeter per second squared.
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....F.7
Standard International (SI) units were formerly called MKS units (meters, kilograms, and seconds).
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... phons.F.8
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A-weighting for more information, including a plot of the A weighting curve (as well as B, C, and D weightings which can be used for louder listening levels) and pointers to relevant standards.
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... byF.9
ibid.
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... weighting|textbfF.10
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ITU-R_468_noise_weighting
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... distortion'').F.11
Companders (compressor-expanders) essentially ``turn down'' the signal gain when it is ``loud'' and ``turn up'' the gain when it is ``quiet''. As long as the input-output curve is monotonic (such as a log characteristic), the dynamic-range compression can be undone (expanded).
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... 0.G.1
Computers use bits, as opposed to the more familiar decimal digits, because they are more convenient to implement in digital hardware. For example, the decimal numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 become, in binary format, 0, 1, 10, 11, 100, 101. Each bit position in binary notation corresponds to a power of 2, e.g., $ 5 = 1\cdot 2^2 + 0\cdot 2^1 + 1\cdot 2^0$ ; while each digit position in decimal notation corresponds to a power of 10, e.g., $ 123 = 1\cdot 10^2 + 2\cdot 10^1 + 3\cdot 10^0$ . The term ``digit'' comes from the same word meaning ``finger.'' Since we have ten fingers (digits), the term ``digit'' technically should be associated only with decimal notation, but in practice it is used for others as well. Other popular number systems in computers include octal which is base 8 (rarely seen any more, but still specifiable in any C/C++ program by using a leading zero, e.g., $ 0755
= 7\cdot 8^2 + 5 \cdot 8^1 + 5\cdot 8^0 = 493$ decimal = 111,101,101 binary), and hexadecimal (or simply ``hex'') which is base 16 and which employs the letters A through F to yield 16 digits (specifiable in C/C++ by starting the number with ``0x'', e.g., 0x1ED = $ 1\cdot 16^2 + 15 \cdot 16^1 + 14\cdot 16^0 = 493$ decimal = 1,1110,1101 binary). Note, however, that the representation within the computer is still always binary; octal and hex are simply convenient groupings of bits into sets of three bits (octal) or four bits (hex).
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... processors.G.2
This information is subject to change without notice. Check your local compiler documentation.
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... feedbackG.3
Normally, quantization error is computed as $ e(n)=x(n)-{\hat x}(n)$ , where $ x(n)$ is the signal being quantized, and $ {\hat x}(n) = Q[x(n)]$ is the quantized value, obtained by rounding to the nearest representable amplitude. Filtered error feedback uses instead the formula $ {\hat x}(n) = Q[x(n)+{\cal L}\{e(n-1)\}]$ , where $ {\cal L}\{\;\}$ denotes a filtering operation which ``shapes'' the quantization noise spectrum. An excellent article on the use of round-off error feedback in audio digital filters is [18].
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... most-significant).G.4
Remember that byte addresses in a big endian word start at the big end of the word, while in a little endian architecture, they start at the little end of the word.
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... ``endianness'':G.5
Thanks to Bill Schottstaedt for help with this table.
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...,G.6
The notation $ [a,b)$ denotes a half-open interval which includes $ a$ but not $ b$ .
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....G.7
Another term commonly heard for ``significand'' is ``mantissa.'' However, this use of the term ``mantissa'' is not the same as its previous definition as the fractional part of a logarithm. We will therefore use only the term ``significand'' to avoid confusion.
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... bias.G.8
By choosing the bias equal to half the numerical dynamic range of $ E$ (thus effectively inverting the sign bit of the exponent), it becomes easier to compare two floating-point numbers in hardware: the entire floating-point word can be treated by the hardware as one giant integer for numerical comparison purposes. This works because negative exponents correspond to floating-point numbers less than 1 in magnitude, while positive exponents correspond to floating-point numbers greater than 1 in magnitude.
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...CODEC|textbfCODECsG.9
CODEC is an acronym for ``COder/DECoder''.
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... processing.G.10
The first by Gray and Davisson is available free online. The second by Papoulis is a classic textbook. The two volumes by Kay provide perhaps the most comprehensive coverage of the field. The volumes by Sharf and Kailath represent material used for many years in the authors' respective graduate level courses in statistical signal processing. All of the cited authors are well known researchers and professors in the field. It should also perhaps be noted that Book IV [72] in the music signal processing book series (of which this is Book I) contains a fair amount of introductory material in this area.
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...PapoulisRV:G.11
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probability_density_function
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... elementH.1
We are now using $ j$ as an integer counter, not as $ \sqrt{-1}$ . This is standard notational practice.
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... argument.H.2
Alternatively, it can be extended to the complex case by writing $ \mathbf{A}^{\ast }\mathbf{B}\isdef [\ldots<b_j,a^{\ast }_i>\ldots]$ , so that $ \mathbf{A}^{\ast }$ includes a conjugation of the elements of $ \mathbf{A}$ . This difficulty arises from the fact that matrix multiplication is really defined without consideration of conjugation or transposition at all, making it unwieldy to express in terms of inner products in the complex case, even though that is perhaps the most fundamental interpretation of a matrix multiply.
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... columns.I.1
For consistency with sum and other functions, it would be better if length() returned the number of elements along dimension 1, with the special case of using dimension 2 (``along rows'') for row-vectors. However, compatibility with early Matlab dictates the convention used.
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... matrix|textbf.I.2
Going back into ``math mode'', let's show that the $ N\times M$ projection matrix

$\displaystyle {\bf P}= \mathbf{X}(\mathbf{X}^\ast \mathbf{X})^{-1} \mathbf{X}^\ast \protect$ (I.1)

yields orthogonal projection onto the column-space of $ \mathbf{X}$ (when the $ M\times M$ matrix $ \mathbf{X}^\ast \mathbf{X}$ is invertible, and here $ \mathbf{X}^\ast$ denotes the Hermitian (conjugating) transpose of $ \mathbf{X}$ ). That is, if $ \hat{y}\isdeftext {\bf P}y$ is the projection of $ y$ onto $ \mathbf{X}$ , we must have, by definition of orthogonal projection (§5.9.9), that $ \hat{y}$ lies in the column-space of $ \mathbf{X}$ , and that $ (y- \hat{y})\perp
\hat{y}$ , or $ \langle (\mathbf{I}-{\bf P})\underline{y},{\bf P}\underline{y}\rangle =0$ for any $ \underline{y}\in{\bf C}^N$ . We may say that $ (\mathbf{I}-{\bf P})$ projects onto the orthogonal complement of the column-space of $ \mathbf{X}$ .

That $ \hat{y}$ is a linear combination of the columns of $ \mathbf{X}$ is immediate because $ \mathbf{X}$ is the leftmost term of the definition of $ {\bf P}$ in Eq.$ \,$ (I.1). To show orthogonality of the ``projection error'', i.e., that $ \langle (\mathbf{I}-{\bf P})\underline{y},{\bf P}\underline{y}\rangle =0$ for all $ \underline{y}\in{\bf C}^N$ , note that in matrix notation we must show $ \underline{y}^\ast{\bf P}^\ast(\mathbf{I}-{\bf P})\underline{y}=0$ for all $ \underline{y}$ , which requires $ {\bf P}^\ast(\mathbf{I}-{\bf P})=0$ , or $ {\bf P}^\ast={\bf P}^\ast{\bf P}$ . Since $ {\bf P}\isdeftext \mathbf{X}
(\mathbf{X}^\ast \mathbf{X})^{-1} \mathbf{X}^\ast$ , it is Hermitian symmetric, so that the orthogonal projection requirement becomes $ {\bf P}={\bf P}^2$ , which is easily verified for $ {\bf P}$ as defined in Eq.$ \,$ (I.1).

The general property $ {\bf P}^2={\bf P}$ defines an idempotent square matrix $ {\bf P}$ . Intuitively, it makes sense that a projection should be idempotent, because once a vector is projected onto a particular subspace, projecting again should do nothing. All idempotent matrices are projection matrices, and vice versa. However, only Hermitian (symmetric) idempotent matrices correspond to orthogonal projection [48].

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