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Dual of the Convolution Theorem

The dual7.19 of the convolution theorem says that multiplication in the time domain is convolution in the frequency domain:


$\displaystyle \zbox {x\cdot y \;\longleftrightarrow\;\frac{1}{N} X\circledast Y} $

Proof: The steps are the same as in the convolution theorem.

This theorem also bears on the use of FFT windows. It implies that windowing in the time domain corresponds to smoothing in the frequency domain. That is, the spectrum of $ w\cdot x$ is simply $ X$ filtered by $ W$ , or, $ W\circledast X$ . This smoothing reduces sidelobes associated with the rectangular window, which is the window one is using implicitly when a data frame $ x$ is considered time limited and therefore eligible for ``windowing'' (and zero-padding). See Chapter 8 and Book IV [73] for further discussion.

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``Mathematics of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), with Audio Applications --- Second Edition'', by Julius O. Smith III, W3K Publishing, 2007, ISBN 978-0-9745607-4-8
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Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA),   Stanford University