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# Matrices

A matrix is defined as a rectangular array of numbers, e.g., which is a (two by two'') matrix. A general matrix may be , where is the number of rows, and is the number of columns of the matrix. For example, the general matrix is Either square brackets or large parentheses may be used to delimit the matrix. The th elementH.1 of a matrix may be denoted by , , or . For example, in the above two examples. The rows and columns of matrices are normally numbered from instead of from 0 ; thus, and . When , the matrix is said to be square.

The transpose of a real matrix is denoted by and is defined by While is , its transpose is . We may say that the rows and columns are interchanged'' by the transpose operation, and transposition can be visualized as flipping'' the matrix about its main diagonal. For example, A complex matrix , is simply a matrix containing complex numbers. The transpose of a complex matrix is normally defined to include conjugation. The conjugating transpose operation is called the Hermitian transpose. To avoid confusion, in this tutorial, and the word transpose'' will always denote transposition without conjugation, while conjugating transposition will be denoted by and be called the Hermitian transpose'' or the conjugate transpose.'' Thus, Subsections
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