... performance.2.1
This distinction is also important when evaluating real-world musical instruments. It is better to ask a skilled performer to comment on the quality of an instrument than a listener. A good musician can make almost any instrument sound good, while appreciating its defects and working around them in performance.
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... pianos''.2.2
For example, the Synthogy Ivory (a $349 software product in 2006), ships as 40 Gigabytes on ten DVDs (three sampled pianos). Every key is sampled, with 4-10 ``velocity layers'', separate recordings with the soft pedal down, and separate ``release'' recordings, for multiple striking velocities. (Source: Electronic Musician magazine, October 2006)
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... acoustic2.3
In the case of audio effects, ``acoustic'' recordings are normally replaced by ``electronic'' recordings. The same applies to the sampling of vintage electronic instruments, such as the Fender Rhodes electric piano, etc.
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... equation2.4
See Appendix B for further discussion of Newton's laws of motion.
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...2.5
Digitizing a system generally means converting it from continuous-time to discrete-time form. For an ODE, for example, this typically involves algebraically replacing the time differential $ dt$ in the ODE by a practical sampling interval $ T$ , as will be discussed below and in §7.3.1.
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... dashpot2.6
A dashpot is the idealized mechanical equivalent of a resistor in electrical circuit theory. Its compression velocity is proportional to applied force, i.e., $ f_\mu = \mu {\dot x}$ . Dashpots are often used to model forces due to friction and are typically valid over a restricted frequency range. Masses and springs are mechanical equivalents of electrical inductors and capacitors, respectively. More about these elements will be discussed below in this chapter and later in this book.
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....2.7
Transverse displacement is displacement in a plane orthogonal to the string axis $ x$ .
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... beyond.2.8
It is interesting to note that in the development of quantum mechanics in the early 1900s, it was necessary to replace deterministic Newtonian dynamics with a probabilistic model. In quantum mechanics, probability distributions may follow deterministic trajectories as in Newtonian mechanics (see, for example, Schrödinger's equation), but they are only probability distributions, so there is no deterministic ``clock works'' at the smallest physical scales. We are fortunate to be able to use Newtonian dynamics with such great accuracy. Our difficulty will be complexity, not randomness. Paradoxically, the typical way to deal with overwhelming complexity is to model it as random (e.g., filtered white noise).
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....2.9
As discussed in §1.3.6, only velocity $ v(t)$ is needed for the state variable of a mass, since a mass moving in one dimension has only one degree of freedom (with energy $ mv^2/2$ ). However, since it is physically reasonable to expect both velocity and position to be needed for the state of a point mass, let's ``play that out'' and see how it goes. This also gives us a simple vector example to study.
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... proper2.10
See [452, p. 133] regarding the cases $ M\ge N$ for which a ``long division'' is first performed to obtain an FIR part in parallel with a strictly proper part.
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... diagonal.2.11
More precisely, $ A$ is diagonal when the poles are distinct. A repeated pole can result in a block of $ A$ having 1s along its superdiagonal.
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... eigenvectors.2.12
A generalized eigenvector $ \mathbf{p}$ of matrix $ A$ corresponding to eigenvalue $ \lambda$ having multiplicity $ k$ is a nonzero solution of $ (A-\lambda I)^k\mathbf{p}=0$ .
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... zero.2.13
The other law routinely used in circuit analysis is that the sum of all currents entering a circuit node (connection of wires) is zero. This kind of analysis will be revisited in §9.3.1.
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... resistance.2.14
Note that models of damping in practical physical systems are rarely completely independent of frequency, as is the ideal dashpot.
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...JOSFP2.15
For a short online introduction to Laplace transforms, see, e.g.,
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/Laplace_Transform_Analysis.html.
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... direction.3.1
To determine whether a surface is effectively flat, it may first be smoothed so that variations less than a wavelength in size are ignored. That is, waves do not ``see'' variations on a scale much less than a wavelength.
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...STK4.3.2
In the code of Fig.2.10, the first executable line changes the global STK sampling-rate from 44100 Hz (the default) to that of the input soundfile. If this is not done, there is a hidden sampling-rate conversion using linear interpolation when the input file is read, if its sampling rate is different from the global STK sampling-rate. This default rate conversion could alternatively be canceled by saying input.setRate(1.0); after the input file is opened.
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....3.3
It is easy to see that the exponential function $ f(x)=e^{x}$ has the property $ f(a+b)=f(a)f(b)$ . To show that all differentiable functions with this property are exponentials, one can look at the definition of the derivative of $ f(x)$ with respect to $ x$ :

$\displaystyle f^\prime(x)\isdef \lim_{\Delta\to0}\frac{f(x+\Delta) - f(x)}{\Delta}
=\lim_{\Delta\to0}\frac{f(x)f(\Delta) - f(x)}{\Delta}
=f(x)\cdot\lim_{\Delta\to0}\frac{f(\Delta) - 1}{\Delta}.
$

Since $ f(a+0)=f(a)f(0)$ , we must have $ f(0)=1$ . Therefore, the last limit above converges to some constant $ \alpha=f^\prime(0)$ , and $ f^\prime(x)=\alpha f(x)$ . In this way, it is shown that $ f$ satisfies a differential equation whose solution space consists of exponential functions of the form $ f(x)=ae^{\alpha x}$ , and to obtain $ f(0)=1$ , we must have $ a=1$ .
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... dispersion3.4
Dispersion occurs in a traveling wave whenever the propagation speed is different at two or more frequencies.
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... equal.3.5
The signs may differ, however. For example, imagine twisting a stretched string about a point along its length in the plane of transverse vibration. In that case, the transverse-displacement pulses propagating away from the twist have opposite sign. This opposite-sign effect happens also for slope waves emanating from a pluck disturbance, as we'll see in Chapter 6. (A positive pluck corresponds to a positive slope on its left and a negative slope on its right.)
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... law3.6
Newton's third law states that ``every action produces an equal and opposite reaction.'' Therefore, every ``physical'' signal connection must be bidirectional, in order to model both the applied force and the equal reaction force, or ``loading effect''. Bidirectional signal connections are typically called ports. A ``port'' (one physical connection point) in electrical circuit theory consists of two variables, typically voltage and current. In acoustics, corresponding port variables would be pressure and velocity. As discussed later (e.g., for Wave Digital Filters in Appendix F), a simple 2x2 matrix linear transformation converts ``force and flow'' port variables, such as these, to ``traveling-wave component'' port variables.
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... waves3.7
Loading effects can be viewed as the result of instantaneous return waves. This equivalence is seen clearly, for example, in Wave Digital Filters (Appendix F).
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... neglected.3.8
This follows years of standard practice in analog electric circuit design using voltage transfer interconnections. For ``voltage transfer'' from one circuit-stage to another with minimized loading effects, output impedances are made as low as practical, while input impedances are set very high. For example, in analog synthesizers built during the 1970s, input impedances were typically around 100 times output impedances (e.g., 100K and 1K Ohms, respectively in a typical op-amp circuit) [205].
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... as3.9
Note that Fig.2.24 is given in direct form 2, so its describing equations are $ v(n) = x(n) - a_M v(n-M);\; y(n) = b_0 v(n)$ . To make the figure correspond exactly to the direct-form-1 difference equation, simply move $ b_0$ from the output arrow to the input arrow. That is, commute the scaling by $ b_0$ and the feedback loop so that $ b_0$ is first.
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... filter|textbf,3.10
Readers of the main chapters of this book are not required to know linear algebra, but one does not have to learn much to follow the discussion in this section. See, for example, [454, available online] for the basic matrix operations. An excellent linear algebra text is [332]. See also the lecture videos by Strang by searching for ``linear algebra'' at http://ocw.mit.edu/.
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....3.11
If $ \mathbf{A}$ is complex, transposition must include complex conjugation, i.e., $ \mathbf{A}^\ast \isdef \overline{\mathbf{A}^T}$ . The conjugate-transpose $ \mathbf{A}^\ast$ is called the Hermitian transpose of $ \mathbf{A}$ .
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... 1,3.12
By definition, $ \mathbf{Q}\mathbf{Q}^T=\mathbf{I}$ , so that all singular values of an orthogonal matrix are equal to 1.
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... line.3.13
This structure may be quickly derived by forming a series combination of a feedback comb filter followed by a feedforward comb filter, and noticing that the two delay lines contain the same numbers at all times. Therefore, the two delay lines can be replaced by a single shared delay line.
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...causal|textbf3.14
A filter is said to be causal if its impulse response $ h(n)$ is zero for $ n<0$ .
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...fbffcf.3.15
Gerzon's starting point was Schroeder's allpass which differs slightly from Eq.$ \,$ (2.15), having difference equation [415]

\begin{eqnarray*}
v(n) &=& x(n) + g v(n-M)\\
y(n) &=& -g x(n) + (1-g^2) v(n-M),
\end{eqnarray*}

with $ \vert g\vert<1$ required for stability. This structure can be derived from Eq.$ \,$ (2.15) on page [*] by moving the feedforward path to the other side of the input summer and deriving the new gain for $ v(n-M)$ . Gerzon's idea was to replace the $ M$ -sample delay by a multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) allpass-filter matrix; Gerzon's ``unitary frequency-response matrices'' correspond to paraunitary matrix transfer functions [452, Appendix D].

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... matrix|textbf3.16
A (possibly complex) matrix $ \mathbf{U}$ is said to be unitary if $ \mathbf{U}^\ast\mathbf{U}=\mathbf{I}$ , where $ W^\ast\isdeftext
\overline{W^T}$ is the Hermitian transpose of $ W$ . A real unitary matrix is said to be orthogonal, which is the case most commonly used in practice.
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... impedance3.17
See §7.1 for definitions and discussion regarding impedance.
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... ear,4.1
One tapped delay line can also model one source to multiple ears, or vice versa (Fig.5.6).
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... time4.2
Reverberation time is typically defined as $ t_{60}$ , the time, in seconds, to decay by 60 dB.
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... shown4.3
A simple proof for rectangular rooms can be based on considering a single spherical wave produced from a point source in the room. Imagine tesselating all of 3D space with copies of the original room (minus the source), all in the same orientation. As the spherical wave expands, it intersects a number of rooms that is roughly proportional to its radius squared. Since the radius is proportional to time for an expanding spherical wavefront ($ r=ct$ ), the number of rooms containing a wave section grows as $ t^2$ . By adding all the rooms together (flipping every other one along $ x$ and $ y$ ), we obtain the acoustic field in the original reverberant room at time $ t$ , for the case of lossless wall reflections of pressure waves. (This is the dual of the usual image method for computing the impulse response of a room [11].) Since each wave-section traverses each point exactly once in each room image (disregarding reflections, which are accounted for by different room images), the number of echoes at any point in the room during the time it takes a plane wave to traverse the room is very close to the number of wave sections in the room at the beginning of that time interval. Incidentally, this construction gives, in the limit as $ r\to\infty$ , a derivation and vivid visualization of the diffuse field--the superposition of equal-amplitude traveling plane-waves arriving from all directions and having uniformally distributed random arrival phase [352,47].
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... shown4.4
As described in virtually any acoustics textbook, the resonant modes of a rectangular room are given by (see, e.g., [352, pp. 284-286])

$\displaystyle k^2(l,m,n) = k^2_x(l) + k^2_y(m) + k^2_z(n) \protect$ (4.1)

where $ k_x(l) = l\pi/L_x$ denotes the $ l$ th harmonic frequency (radian/meter) of the fundamental standing wave in the $ x$ direction ($ L_x$ being the length of the room along $ x$ ), and similarly for the $ y$ and $ z$ directions. Thus, the mode frequencies of a room can be enumerated on a uniform 3D Cartesian grid indexed by $ (l,m,n)$ . The grid spacings along $ x$ , $ y$ , and $ z$ are taken to be $ \pi/L_x$ , $ \pi/L_y$ , and $ \pi/L_z$ , respectively. From Eq.$ \,$ (3.1), the spatial frequency $ k$ of mode $ (l,m,n)$ is given by the distance from the origin of the grid to the point indexed by $ (l,m,n)$ . Therefore, the number of room modes having spatial frequency between $ k$ and $ k+\Delta$ is equal to the number of grid points lying in the spherical annulus between radius $ k$ and $ k+\Delta$ . Since the grid is uniform, this number grows as $ k^2$ .
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...4.5
One definition of when late reverberation begins is when it begins to look Gaussian, since a random sum of plane waves uniformly distributed over all angles of arrival yields a Gaussian distributed pressure field. (The fact that late reverberation in a rectangular room always approaches the diffuse field--a superposition of plane waves traveling in all directions can be seen from the ``image-method dual'' argument in §3.2.1.) One way to test for Gaussianness is to form a histogram of impulse response sample values over a finite window (say 10ms, or roughly 500 samples), and compare the normalized histogram $ h(p)$ to a standard Gaussian bell curve $ G(p)$ computed using the measured sample variance. A threshold can be placed on $ \vert\vert\,h-G\,\vert\vert $ , or some number of higher order sample moments can be compared. A simpler test is to determine when roughly 30% of the samples in a frame have magnitude larger than one standard deviation ( $ \vert x(n)\vert>\sigma_x$ ) [3], since the probability of this occurring in truly Gaussian sequences is $ 1-$erf$ (1/\sqrt{2})= 0.3173\ldots\,$ , where erf$ (x)$ denotes the ``error function'' (integral from $ -x$ to $ x$ of the Gaussian probability density function with normalized variance $ \sigma^2=1/2$ ). For a zero-mean signal $ x(n)$ , the sample standard deviation $ \sigma_x$ is given by the root-mean-square (RMS level). Another desired property of ``late reverb'' is that the remaining energy in the impulse response (Schroeder's Energy Decay Curve (EDC) [416]), has begun what appears to be an exponential decay. This can be ascertained by fitting an exponential to the EDC using, e.g., Prony's method.
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... (TDL).4.6
This idea was apparently first suggested by Schroeder in 1970 [418] and evidently first implemented by Moorer [317].
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...MoorerReverb79.4.7
In computer music, an old trick for making a synthesized tone sound reverberated is to randomly modulate its amplitude envelope, and to append a low-level exponentially decaying tail to the amplitude envelope (also modulated). This can produce a very convincing illusion.
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... examples.4.8
https://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/wav/FM-BrassCanon2.wav
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....4.9
As an alternative to the output delay values shown in Fig.3.7, the values $ [0.013, 0.011, 0.019, 0.017]f_s$ have been used.
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... alone.4.10
There is a Freeverb pd ``external'' in both the pd-extended and faust-pd packages, and it appears in the muse sequencer, kdemultimedia, clm, and faust language packages, all included with Planet CCRMA. Other versions may be found by a Web search for ``Freeverb source'', but I have not found any version that isn't essentially the same June 2000 version by Jezar at Dreampoint.
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... (LBCF4.11
``Lowpass-Back-Comb-Filter''--to keep all the comb-filter acronyms down to four characters: FFCF, FBCF, LBCF. Author's prerogative!
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...math.lib4.12
Details about Faust may be found at http://faust.grame.fr/.
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... diagonal.4.13
This is easy to show by performing an expansion by minors to calculate $ \det(z\mathbf{I}-
\mathbf{A})$ , always choosing to expand along the top row (for lower triangular) or first column (for upper triangular).
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...4.14
This substitution was first applied to complete reverberators by Jot [217,218]. The idea is closely related to the approximate pole analysis in [317, p. 17], [432, pp. 170-172], and [208], and somewhat also to the allpass conformal maps used in [318,461].
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...FDNJot).4.15
Note that, as developed here, the delay-line filters $ G_i(z)$ should be located either before or after its associated delay line, while Fig.3.10 associates it with the feedback matrix. The difference is typically not audible.
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... dc.4.16
In a Faust implementation, this form was found to be more numerically sensitive than that of the previous section when changing the $ t_{60}$ s in real time (see §3.7.9).
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... FOSS4.17
FOSS $ \isdef $ Free Open Source Software
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...zita-rev1,4.18
http://www.kokkinizita.net/linuxaudio/
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...JOSFP,4.19
https://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/Low_High_Shelving_Filters.html
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... respectively.4.20
This section describes the Faust version zita_rev1, which may not be exactly the same as the C++ version zita-rev1, although each control parameter range is the same, and the filter-orders are the same, so at least near-equivalance is expected.
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...Kendall84.4.21
Of course, correct angles-of-arrival for early reflections are more straightforward to implement using an array of loudspeakers enclosing the listener.
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...5.1
A causal IIR filter can be used for random-access table lookup by simply starting the filter at a point sufficiently far away in the table and ``running it'' until it reaches steady-state at the desired interpolation point. While this requires at least as many multiply-adds as an FIR filter spanning the same duration, the number of IIR filter coefficients can be much less than the number of FIR filter coefficients required. IIR interpolators are therefore possibly interesting for certain memory-starved VLSI applications.
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... samples.5.2
Classically, an interpolation $ {\hat f}(x)$ of discrete data points $ f(x_k)$ always required $ {\hat f}(x_k)=f(x_k)$ ; that is, the interpolating function must always pass through the given data points. More recently, however, particularly in the field of computer graphics, interpolation schemes such as Bezier splines have been defined which do not always pass through the known points.
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... matlab:5.3
Say ``help;'' within maxima and/or ``man maxima'' in a shell to get started. Emacs users should say ``M-x maxima''.
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...5.4
To see this, consider that a unit-amplitude sinusoid at half the sampling rate $ f_s/2$ is either $ (-1)^n$ or $ -(-1)^n$ . Therefore, the frequency response $ H(\omega)$ of every real filter at $ f_s/2$ is a real number $ H(\pi f_s) = g$ that is either positive or negative (or zero). When $ g>0$ , the filter's phase delay must be an even integer number of samples. When $ g<0$ , the filter delay is constrained to be some odd number of samples. Taken together, the possible delays at $ f_s/2$ for real filters are the integers. The particular integer is obtained by finding the limit as $ f\to f_s/2$ . The case $ g=0$ can be associated with a non-integer limit, as suggested by the line for $ 2.5$ samples delay in Fig.4.18 above, and as easily shown analytically for order 1 (simple linear interpolation with coefficients $ 0.5, 0.5$ , corresponding to a desired delay of $ 0.5$ samples) [452].
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...VesaT.5.5
http://www.acoustics.hut.fi/~vpv/publications/vesan_vaitos/ch3_pt2_lagrange.pdf
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... rule,5.6
Evaluation of a polynomial $ p(x) = p_0 + p_1 x + p_2 x^2 + \cdots + p_N x^N$ by Horner's rule can be expressed as $ p(x) = p_0 + x \cdot (p_1 + x \cdot (p_2 + \cdots + x \cdot p_N)\cdots)$ .
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....5.7
Of course, all derivatives of $ x(n)$ must be calculated from the underlying continuous signal $ x_c(t)$ represented by the samples $ x(n)$ and then evaluated at $ t=nT$ .
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...JOSFP.5.8
To see this, note that the integral of the group delay around the unit circle is simply minus the winding number of the phase response (the number of zeros minus the number of poles inside the unit circle):

$\displaystyle \int_0^{2\pi} \Theta^\prime(\omega)d\omega = \Theta(2\pi) - \Theta(0) = - 2\pi N
$

By the graphical method for phase response calculation [452, Chapter 8], each zero contributes $ 2\pi$ radians to $ \Theta(2\pi)-\Theta(0)$ , and each pole contributes $ -2\pi$ radians. Thus, the average group delay around the unit circle is

$\displaystyle \frac{1}{2\pi}\int_0^{2\pi} D(\omega)d\omega \isdef
-\frac{1}{2\pi}\int_0^{2\pi} \Theta^\prime(\omega)d\omega = N
$

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... processing.5.9
The material in this section was adapted from
https://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/resample/, which is an updated online version of [464].
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... kHz.5.10
We arbitrarily define the $ 20$ % guard band as a percentage of half the sampling rate actually used, not as $ 20$ % of the desired $ 20$ kHz bandwidth which would call for a $ 48$ kHz sampling rate.
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...Bartlett70,SmithAllpassFlanger,Bode84,Anderton85,Dattorro97,Keen99.6.1
Flanging was apparently invented independently several times. According to http://www.geofex.com/Article_Folders/phasers/phase.html, the flanging technique was discovered by Phil Spectre in the 1950s in the context of trying to ``thicken'' a vocal tract by summing two copies of a track variably delayed in this way. His first use of flanging as an effect is said to be in his song ``The Big Hurt''. According to historian Mark Lewisohn [288], as summarized at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flanging (accessed March 28, 2010), the term ``flanging'' was coined by John Lennon of the Beatles to describe what EMI engineer Ken Townsend called ``Artificial Double Tracking'' (ADT). ADT was said to be developed by Townsend in response to John Lennon's request to try to eliminate the work of recording vocal tracks twice in order to ``double'' them. George Martin has said to have explained the effect as follows: ``Now listen, it's very simple. We take the original image and we split it through a double-bifurcated sploshing flange with double negative feedback.'' [288]. This suggests that negative regenerative feedback was used in the original stereo flanging technique (§2.6.2). The first Beatles track using flanging is said to have been ``Tomorrow Never Knows'' on the Revolver album (recorded April 6, 1966). Perhaps the most obvious early example of flanging was in the popular song ``Itchykoo Park'' by The Small Faces (1967); this instance is said to have originated with engineer George Chkiantz at Olympic Studios in London. The song featured a foreground drum-roll on a snare with strong flanging throughout, and the vocals were flanged as well.
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... sound.6.2
For sound examples, see http://www.harmony-central.com/Effects/Articles/Flanging/.
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...notches6.3
The term notch here refers to the elimination of sound energy at a single frequency or over a narrow frequency interval. Another term for this is ``null''.
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...Bartlett70,6.4
According to http://www.eventide.com/About/History.aspx, a dual 200 ms delay-line for simulating flanging was called the Instant Phaser. This was the first commercial product circa 1970 made by Eventide Corp. (better known as makers of the Harmonizer).
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... notches.6.5
The author discovered this first-hand by looking at the circuit for the MXR phase shifter in 1975.
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...SmithEtAlDAFx02.6.6
https://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/doppler/
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...eq:dopplershift).6.7
If the tape travels in a loop, then Fig.5.4 provides a model for the Echoplex (Maestro, 1960), which consists of a tape loop with a fixed write-head and movable read-head.
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... first6.8
The ``first'' write-pointer is defined as the one writing farthest ahead in time; it must overwrite memory, instead of summing into it, when a circular buffer is being used, as is typical.
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... Leslie,6.9
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leslie_speaker
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... accurate.6.10
See also the Hammond Leslie FAQ at
http://www.theatreorgans.com/hammond/faq/files/hammond-faq.pdf
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...SmithEtAlDAFx02.6.11
https://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/doppler/
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...dAlembert7.1
See §A.1 for more about the history of the wave equation and its traveling-wave solution.
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... derivation)7.2
Note that $ f_r$ and $ f_l$ , as defined, are traveling-wave components of the force acting to the right on the string. That is, their sum $ f(t,x)=f_r+f_l$ is physically the force that the string-segment to the left of position $ x$ applies (in the upward direction) to the string-segment to the right of point $ x$ . In other words, $ f(t,x)$ denotes the vertical force applied by the left segment to the right segment at time $ t$ and position $ x$ ; thus, it ``acts to the right'', even though its traveling-wave components, $ f_l$ and $ f_r$ , travel to the left and right, respectively, at speed $ c$ . The net physical force acting to the right at each point is exactly canceled by an equal and opposite force acting to the left at each point $ x$ . See §C.7.2 for a detailed derivation.
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... inversion:7.3
All wave phenomena involve two physical state variables--one force-like and the other velocity-like. When one of these variables reflects from a termination with a sign inversion, the other reflects with no sign inversion, and vice versa. In acoustic systems, the force-like variable is pressure, and the velocity-like variable is either particle velocity (in open air) or volume velocity (in acoustic tubes), as described in §6.2 above. In electromagnetic systems, the state variables are electric and magnetic field strengths or voltage and current. In a mass-spring oscillator, we may choose the velocity and acceleration of the mass as the coordinates of our state space, or position and velocity. For transverse waves on vibrating strings, it is usually preferable to use force and velocity waves as described above.
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...fMovingTermb,7.4
This diagram can be seen animated along with Figure 6.4 at
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/swgt/movet.html .
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... bound.7.5
Our model becomes invalid as the slope becomes large. In particular, the string tension $ K$ obviously increases as the string length increases. Here we assume $ K$ is constant.
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...,7.6
In somewhat more detail,

\begin{eqnarray*}
v^{+}&=&\frac{f^{{+}}}{R}\isdefs \frac{-Ky'^{+}}{\sqrt{K\epsilon }} \eqsp -cy'^{+}\\
v^{-}&=&-\frac{f^{{-}}}{R}\isdefs \frac{Ky'^{-}}{\sqrt{K\epsilon }} \eqsp cy'^{-}
\end{eqnarray*}

so that $ v=v^{+}+v^{-}=c(y'^{-}-y'^{+})$ , and $ y=c\int(y'^{-}-y'^{+})dx$ .

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...fsstring7.7
We should use the notation $ {\hat G}_N(z)$ for this loop-filter, since it depends on the string length $ N/2$ (in samples). The dependence of $ {\hat G}(z)$ on $ N$ is suppressed for simplicity of notation.
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...JOSFP.7.8
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/Allpass_Filters.html
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...OppenheimAndSchafer,JOSFP.7.9
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/Transposed_Direct_Forms.html
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...JOSFP,7.10
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/Filters_Preserving_Phase.html
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...invfreqz7.11
In Matlab, the Signal Processing Tool Box is required, and in Octave, the octave-signal MacPort package is needed. The Linux octave package already includes this (at least on Fedora 13).
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...KlapuriMohonk05,KlapuriSAP03,Klapuri01.7.12
Klapuri's publication home page: http://www.cs.tut.fi/~klap/iiro/
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... time-slices:7.13
Note that this derivation also holds if the power `2' is replaced by an arbitrary $ p$ , thereby supporting a generalization from the EDR to what might be called the ``LPDR'' using a kind of $ Lp$ norm on the remaining decay, where the EDR is regarded as the $ L2$ case.
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....7.14
The delay-line length $ N$ is only the ``quasi-period'' in samples when the phase delay associated with $ H_l(z)$ can be neglected. $ N$ is never a true ``period'' because the synthesized signal is decaying from one block to the next.
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... instrument.7.15
Electric guitars with magnetic pickups have nearly rigid terminations, but even then, coupling phenomena are clearly observed, especially above the sixth partial or so.
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... be7.16
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/Finding_Eigenvalues_Practice.html
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... parts.7.17
It is not necessary to perform a Taylor series expansion to separate out the even and odd parts of a function. Instead, the even part of $ f(x)$ can be computed as $ f_e(x) = [f(x)+f(-x)]/2$ and the odd part as $ f_o(x) =
[f(x)-f(-x)]/2$ . It is easily checked that $ f_e$ is even, $ f_o$ is odd, and $ f=f_e+f_o$ .
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... mapping.7.18
Note that memoryless nonlinearities used for distortion simulation are typically odd functions of instantaneous amplitude, such as $ f(x)=x+\alpha x^3$ . (A good practical choice is given in Eq.$ \,$ (6.19).) However, in guitar-amplifier distortion simulation, even-order terms are considered quite important [398].
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...7.19
The convolution theorem for Fourier transforms states that convolution in the time domain corresponds to pointwise multiplication in the frequency domain [452]. The dual of the convolution theorem states just the opposite: Pointwise multiplication in the time domain corresponds to convolution in the frequency domain. Thus, if the spectrum of $ x(n)$ is $ X(\omega)$ , then the spectrum of $ x^2(n)$ is $ (X\ast X)(\omega)$ , where ``$ \ast $ '' denotes the convolution operation.
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... spectra.7.20
The basilar membrane of the ear (which is rolled up inside the snail-shaped cochlea of the ear) effectively performs a real-time Fourier analysis which is ``felt'' by nerve cells leading to the brain.
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... transform|textbf,8.1
For a short online introduction to Laplace transforms, see, e.g.,
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/Laplace_Transform_Analysis.html.
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... relation:8.2
Of course, here we should call it the ``force divider'' relation.
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... mass.''8.3
We say that the driving point of every mechanical system must ``looks like a mass'' at sufficiently high frequency because every mechanical system has at least some mass, and the driving-point impedance of a mass goes to infinity with frequency. However, in a completely detailed model, the contact force between objects should really be the Coulombe force, which ``looks like a spring''. In other words, mechanical interactions are ultimately electromagnetic interactions, and it is theoretically possible for a driving force on an atom to be so small and fast that it can vibrate the outermost electron orbital without moving the nucleus appreciably, thus ``looking like a spring'' in the high-frequency limit. We will not be concerned with atomic-scale models in this book, and will persist in treating masses and springs in idealized form.
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...JOSFP.8.4
Available online at
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/Graphical_Amplitude_Response.html
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....8.5
To avoid the introduction of half a sample of delay by the approximation, the first-order finite difference may be defined instead as $ x[(n+1)T]-x[(n-1)T]/(2T)$ .
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...JOSFP).8.6
In continuous time, the order is incremented once for each independently moving mass or spring. In discrete time, the order is increased by one when a sample of delay is added to the system state, and the number of multiplies needed to implement a digital simulation is bounded by twice the order plus one.
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...JOSFP,8.7
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/State_Space_Filters.html
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...blt).8.8
Normally one or more output signals $ \underline{y}$ are defined as linear combinations of the state vector $ \underline{x}$ , viz., $ \underline{y}(t) = C\,
\underline{x}(t)$ . However, we can define the state itself as the output for now, and form any desired linear combinations separately.
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...FranklinEtAl98.9.1
Estimating transfer functions based on input-output measurements is called ``system identification'' [290,432]--used in advanced automatic control applications.
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....9.2
For convenience, we typically define the discrete-time counterpart of a continuous-time function as though the sampling interval were $ T=1$ .
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... response.9.3
Frequency-domain aliasing is discussed in [454].
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...JOSFP:9.4
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/Partial_Fraction_Expansion.html
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...JOSFP).9.5
The strictly proper constraint is natural in practice because the frequency responses of typical real-world systems generally roll off at least -6 dB per octave. Notice that Eq.$ \,$ (8.1) becomes $ b_a(0)/s$ as $ s\to\infty$ , which is a $ -6$ dB/octave roll off. Setting $ b_a(0)=0$ and $ b_a(1)\ne 0$ yields a $ -12$ dB/octave roll-off, and so on. However, this depends on the physical units chosen for the input and output signals of the system. For example, consider an ideal nonzero mass driven by a force; while the resulting velocity and displacement go to zero as frequency goes to infinity (for any finite applied force), the acceleration does not roll off, being proportional to applied force by Newton's 2nd law.
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... modes.9.6
Modal synthesis could well be renamed ``Bernoulli synthesis,'' as Daniel Bernoulli was quite alone in advocating the concept of seeing general vibration as a superposition of ``simple'' sinusoidal vibrations. This view was resisted by Euler and d'Alembert at the time [103].
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...JOSFP9.7
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/Modal_Representation.html
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... response,9.8
A ``causal frequency response'' $ H(e^{j\omega})$ is the Fourier transform of a causal impulse response $ h(n)$ (i.e., $ h(n)=0$ for all $ n<0$ ). Extensions to finitely noncausal spectra are straightforward: Time-shift the desired impulse response to make it causal, perform the filter design, then reverse-time-shift the filter numerator if needed.
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...9.9
A stability margin may be specified, for example, by requiring all poles $ p_i$ to satisfy $ \vert p_i\vert\le 1-\delta$ , where $ 1\gg\delta>0$ determines the stability margin. In particular, with this specification on the poles, the impulse response $ h(n)$ must decay asymptotically at least as fast as $ (1-\delta)^n$ [452].
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...convex9.10
Since convex functions bulge upward, like the top of a circle, it makes sense to maximize them in general. Since our error-surface formulation is always minimized with respect to the filter parameters, we could call it ``concave'' or ``convex from below''. In the optimization domain, however, a ``convex'' region is one that contains all of its chords, thus it applies to either case.
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....9.11
$ \vert{\hat H}\vert$ cannot go to infinity since the constraint $ {\hat B}(z)=1$ and the stability constraint imply that ln$ \vert{\hat H}(e^{j\omega})\vert$ is zero-mean by the argument principle [299,329].
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... Octave.9.12
Octave's remez function and Matlab's firpm function (Signal Processing Toolbox) have a special mode for designing FIR differentiators that are optimal in the Chebeshev sense, while invfreqz minimizes equation error, which is arguably not as good. We focus on invfreqz in this chapter because it offers the level of generality needed for fitting digital filters to arbitrary measured frequency responses.
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...9.13
When working with invfreqz, it is often helpful to multiply the desired spectrum by a linear phase term [452] corresponding to an added delay in the impulse response [432]. The filter designed by invfreqz will typically be stable if sufficient delay is added to the desired frequency response in this way. Thus, if a filter designed by invfreqz is found to be unstable, multiply the desired frequency response by a steeper negative-slope linear-phase term and repeat the design.
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... data.9.14
The number of poles and zeros needed for a reasonable fit were determined empirically. No zeros gives a poor overall match, and only two poles yields a significantly less sharp resonant peak.
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... responses.9.15
Ideally, they are also constrained to produce stable filters as well, but invfreqz does not offer a stability constraint, and so stability should be checked whenever specifying one or more poles.
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...JOSFP.9.16
https://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/Creating_Minimum_Phase_Filters.html
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...SB.9.17
SynthBuilder is now a proprietary in-house tool at Analog Devices, Inc. See [86] for a description of the STK software prototyping environment that many of us use today. In particular, the Mandolin.cpp patch in the STK distribution is based on commuted synthesis. Some of us are also using the STK package in conjunction with pd [358] in order to obtain drag-and-drop graphical patch construction and a large library of MIDI processing tools.
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...SmithCommutedFromPASP,MattiGuitar,MattiAndSmith96.9.18
Extracts of this material were published previously in [230].
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... volume.9.19
These remarks apply to playback of the excitation only. The string provides further filtering which could be taken into account. However, to a first approximation, the string filtering is like a ``sampling'' of the excitation spectrum, with a gentle roll-off at high frequencies due to the lowpass loop filtering. Also, the string is a highly variable filter with many settings. It is therefore reasonable to ignore the string filtering when determining an optimal preemphasis for excitation-table quantization.
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...allpass1phaser.9.20
This is the basic architecture of the MXR phase shifter as well as the Univibe used by Jimi Hendrix [243], and described in detail at (http://www.geofex.com/Article_Folders/univibe/uvfrindx.htm).
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... filters,9.21
Moog has built a 12-stage phaser of this type [59] and up to 20 stages (10 notches) have been noted [244].
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...JOSFP9.22
Available online at
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/Analog_Allpass_Filters.html
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...9.23
Saying that the frequency $ \omega_b$ is the break frequency for the one-pole term $ H(s)=b/(s+\omega_b)$ is terminology from classical control theory. Below the break frequency, $ H(s)\approx b/\omega_b$ , and above, $ H(s)\approx b/s$ . On a log-log plot, the amplitude response $ \vert H(j\omega)\vert$ may be approximated by a slope-zero line at height $ G_0=20\log_{10}(\vert b/\omega_b\vert)$ from dc to $ \omega_b$ , followed by an intersecting line with negative slope of 20 dB per decade for all higher frequencies. At the break frequency, the true gain is down 3 dB from $ G_0$ , but far away from the break frequency, the piecewise-linear approximation is very accurate. Such a plot of the log-frequency-response versus log-frequency (the real part being log-magnitude and the imaginary part being phase, plotted separately) is called a Bode plot. Bode plots are covered in any introductory course on control systems design (also called the design of ``servomechanisms''), and see also the Wikipedia page for ``Bode plot.''
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... response:10.1
The corresponding impulse response is $ h=[\ldots,0,{\hat g}(1),{\hat g}(0),{\hat g}(1),0,\ldots]$ , where $ {\hat g}(0)$ occurs at time 0, and the transfer function is $ {\hat G}(z) = {\hat g}(0) +
{\hat g}(1)[z+z^{-1}]$ . In practice, this filter is typically implemented in causal form, i.e., $ h = [{\hat g}(1),{\hat g}(0),{\hat g}(1),0,\ldots]$ starting at time 0, and one sample of delay is subtracted from a delay-line preceding or following the filter.
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... law,10.2
A function $ f(x)$ is said to be odd if $ f(-x)=-f(x)$ .
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... function:10.3
See http://www.trueaudio.com/at_eetjlm.htm for further discussion.
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... output.10.4
So-called ``electric-acoustic'' guitars, such as the Godin electric-acoustic, use piezoelectric crystals in the bridge to measure string force at the string endpoint. Electric violins, such as the Zeta Violin, typically use this approach as well.
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... measurements.10.5
The matlab function cohere() can be used to compute the coherence function between two signals across multiple physical measurements (one per non-overlapping frame).
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... phase.10.6
Zero-phase filters can normally be implemented in practice because there are pure delay lines preceding and following the reflectance filter, and taps can be introduced in the delay-line preceding the reflectance to implement noncausal terms in the impulse response.
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....10.7
To prove this, note that the roots of $ A(z^{-1})$ are the reciprocals of the roots of $ A(z)$ , since the conformal map $ z \leftarrow z^{-1}$ exchanges interior of the unit circle with the exterior of the unit circle.
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... is),10.8
The set of positive-real admittances considered in [25], reduced to the scalar case and adapted to our notation, can be written as

$\displaystyle \Gamma (z)=\sum_{i=1}^{M/2}\alpha_i\frac{1-z^{-2}}{1
+ a_1(i) z^{-1} + a_2(i) z^{-2}}, \quad \alpha_i\ge 0.$

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... below.10.9
In particular, as illustrated in Fig.9.14 below, we can formulate the initial mass momentum as being supplied by an external impulsive force at time zero.
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... transform10.10
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/Introduction_Laplace_Transform_Analysis.html
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...JOSFP.10.11
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/Differentiation.html
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... function,10.12
$ u(t)=0$ for $ t<0$ and 1 for $ t\ge 0$ .
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...10.13
In acoustic tubes, it is the longitudinal-velocity wave variable that changes sign when the direction of propagation is changed, because the air particles then move in the opposite direction along the tube axis $ x$ . The pressure, on the other hand, being a scalar field, does not fundamentally change sign when the propagation direction toggles.
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... string.10.14
Since we are in continuous time, a notation more consistent with Chapter 6 would be $ f_{i,l}(t-x/c)$ and $ f_{i,r}(t-x/c)$ , for $ i=1,2$ , as we reserved the $ \pm$ superscripts for the discrete-time case in that chapter. Notation has thus been changed for this example.
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...Suzuki,Boutillon88,HallAndAskenfelt88,ChaigneAndAskenfeltII,BorinAndDePoli,Stulov95,GiordanoAndMillis01.10.15
http://www.acs.psu.edu/drussell/Piano/NonlinearHammer.html
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... model).10.16
See, e.g., [350] for a more elaborate model in which release is calculated from the computed geometry of the plectrum.
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... that.10.17
Of course, a truly complete plucking model would allow the plectrum to move in 3D space, at least within a plucking plane, and the collision detection would determine when the string (a point whirling about in the plucking plane) intersects the plectrum.
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... D.10.18
The PC88 stretching begins in the fourth octave, while the measured Steinway stretching is greatest in the first octave (reaching nearly -20 cents relative to ``nominal tuning'' for the first note A0) and picking up again, going sharp, in the sixth octave. See http://www.precisionstrobe.com/apps/stretchdata/stretchdata.html for the measured curves.
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... order,10.19
It is valid to neglect the reed mass when the first reed resonance is well above the fundamental frequency of the played note, as is normally the case.
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... closure.10.20
For operation in fixed-point DSP chips, the independent variable $ h_{\Delta}^{+}
\isdeftext p_m/2 - p_b^{+}$ is generally confined to the interval $ [-1,1)$ . Note that having the table go all the way to zero at the maximum negative pressure $ h_{\Delta}^{+}= -1$ is not physically reasonable (0.8 would be more reasonable), but it has the practical benefit that when the lookup-table input signal is about to clip, the reflection coefficient goes to zero, thereby opening the feedback loop.
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... motion|textbf10.21
https://ccrma.stanford.edu/realsimple/travelingwaves/Helmholtz_Motion.html
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...exponentially10.22
If the flare of the bell is expressed as $ r(x)=ae^{\alpha x}+b$ , where $ r(x)$ denotes the horn radius at position $ x$ along the bore axis, then $ \alpha$ is called the flare constant of the bell.
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... pressure10.23
As always in this book, by ``air pressure'' we mean the excess air pressure above ambient air pressure. In the case of brass instruments, excess air pressure is created by the muscles of the lungs.
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... mouthpiece.10.24
When the kinetic energy of a jet is converted back into air pressure, this is called pressure recovery. We assume, following [98] and others, that pressure recovery does not occur in this model. Instead, the kinetic energy of the ket is assumed to be dissipated in the form of turbulence (vortices and ultimately heat). Note that air flow is therefore assumed inviscid within the mouth and between the lips, but viscous around the jet in the mouthpiece.
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...Putland.10.25
For velocity waves, the flare may be hyperbolic [50].
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...dAlembert,Darrigol07.A.1
For a short biography of d'Alembert, see http: //www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/D'Alembert.html
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... (1685-1731)A.2
http: //<ibidem>/Taylor.html
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... (1707-1783)A.3
http: //<ibidem>/Euler.html
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... eyeglasses.A.4
http://www.mathphysics.com/pde/history.html
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...Darrigol07.A.5
http: //www.stetson.edu/~efriedma/periodictable/html/B.html
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...ZadehAndDesoer,Kailath80,Depalle.A.6
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/PianoString/
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...strain.A.7
http://www.efunda.com/formulae/solid_mechanics/mat_mechanics/hooke.cfm
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... public.A.8
http: //cnx.rice.edu/content/m0050/latest/
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...FettweisMain.A.9
Derivation: http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/pasp/Wave_Digital_Filters.html
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... Belevitch.A.10
http://www.ieee.org/organizations/history_center/oral_histories/transcripts/fettweis.html
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...Flanagan72,FlanaganAndRabinerEds,RabinerAndSchafer10,SchaferAndMarkel79,OShaughnessy87,DPH01,Keller94.A.11
The overview [309] of early speech production models is freely available online, thanks to the Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project.
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... formulation.A.12
http: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_Heaviside
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... phenomenon.A.13
http:www.microwaves101.com/encyclopedia/history.cfm
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...A.14
Scattering theory: http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/pasp/Scattering_Impedance_Changes.html
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... method.A.15
``Bicycle Built for Two'' by Kelly, Lochbaum, and Matthews, 1961: http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/wav/daisy-klm.wav
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... completion.A.16
http://www.bell-labs.com/news/1997/march/5/2.html
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...PRCT.A.17
http: www.cs.princeton.edu/~prc/SingingSynth.html (includes sound examples)
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...PainterAndSpanias2000.A.18
In particular, CELP is used in the free, open-source speech codec called Speex (http://www.speex.org).
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...SchellengA,SchellengB,CremerC.A.19
http://www.zainea.com/Oscilationsofbowedstring.htm
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... simpleB.1
While this formula seems fairly simple now, in Newton's day, it was necessary to invent calculus before it could be stated in this way.
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... constant.B.2
The gravitation constant is given in International Standard Units (``SI units'') by

\begin{eqnarray*}
G &=& 6.672 \times 10^{-11}\mbox{ N}\mbox{ m}^2 \mbox{ kg}^{-2}
\quad (\;=\mbox{ m}^3\mbox{ kg}^{-1}\mbox{ s}^{-2}) % \quad\mbox{(MKS)}
\end{eqnarray*}

where the following physical units abbreviations are used:

\begin{eqnarray*}
\mbox{ m}&\isdeftext & \mbox{meters (length)}\\
\mbox{ kg}&\isdeftext & \mbox{kilograms = $1000\mbox{ g}$\ (mass)}\\
\mbox{ g}&\isdeftext & \mbox{grams (mass)}\\
\mbox{ s}&\isdeftext & \mbox{seconds (time)}\\
\mbox{ N}&\isdeftext & \mbox{newtons $=\mbox{ kg}\mbox{ m}\mbox{ s}^{-2}$\ (force)}
\end{eqnarray*}

The physical units for newtons follow from Newton's second law of motion $ f=ma$ , and the physical units for $ G$ follow immediately from Eq.$ \,$ (B.2).

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...force|textbf.B.3
From a modern point of view, all forces are ``mediated'' by some particle, and there are only four basic forces: The electromagnetic force is mediated by the photon, the strong nuclear force is mediated by the gluon, the weak nuclear force is mediated by the $ W$ and $ Z$ bosons, and gravity is thought to be mediated by the graviton, although gravity is not yet incorporated into the Standard Model of theoretical physics. Only the electromagnetic and gravitational forces are encountered in everyday life, since the strong and weak nuclear forces decay exponentially on the scale of an atomic nucleus.
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... force.B.4
In this example, the mass-spring system is in equilibrium (not moving), so all forces in the system must sum to zero. Equilibrium also must hold if the whole system is traveling with a constant velocity; in other words, it is the lack of relative motion that matters.
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... displacements.B.5
To show this quantitatively, consider two electrons, each having electric charge $ e$ , separated by $ r$ meters. Then the Coulomb force between the electrons is proportional to $ e^2/r^2$ . Adding a small perturbation $ \Delta r$ to $ r$ yields a new force proportional to

$\displaystyle \frac{e^2}{(r+\Delta r)^2}
= \frac{e^2}{r^2}\left(1+\frac{\Delta r}{r}\right)^{-2}
= \frac{e^2}{r^2}\left[1-2\frac{\Delta r}{r} + {\cal O}\left(\frac{\Delta r}{r}\right)^2\right]
\approx \frac{e^2}{r^2} +
\underbrace{\left(-\frac{2}{r^3}\right)}_k\Delta r,
$

where we used the binomial expansion to obtain the approximation. (The notation $ {\cal O}(\epsilon^2)$ means ``terms order of $ \epsilon^2$ '', and such terms approach zero as fast as $ \epsilon^2$ approaches zero.) Thus, the effective spring constant connecting the two electrons is $ k=-2/r^3$ , when $ \vert\Delta r\vert\ll r$ .
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... yieldingB.6
A more formal methodology for arriving at differential equations by applying Newton's law and Hooke's law is described in Appendix F. In the present example, consideration of the underlying physics should convince you that the signs in Eq.$ \,$ (B.4) are correct. For example, when $ x$ is positive, the spring must push the mass back to the left. Therefore, $ m{\ddot x}= -kx$ means the mass will be accelerated to the left.
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... time:B.7
See, e.g., [452, p. 313-316] for a derivation, and Appendix F, specifically §F.3.6, for related analysis.
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... object.B.8
In SI units, work is in units called joules (abbreviated J ). Thus, joules are newtons times meters. Power in watts is defined as joules per second. One joule is the energy dissipated in one second by an electric current of one ampere (coulomb per second) through a resistance of one ohm. For a list of physical units and their abbreviations, see, for example, http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/units.html.
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... considered.B.9
Ok, there does exist energy fluctuation on the scale of ``Heisenberg uncertainty''. That is, it is possible to have a violation in energy conservation by an amount $ \Delta E$ over a time duration $ \Delta t$ , provided $ \Delta E \cdot
\Delta t$ is sufficiently small (on the order of Planck's constant $ h$ ). This can be considered a form of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
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... general.B.10
Conservation of energy and momentum are unified in what is called the ``four-momentum'' of spacetime, $ P=[E/c,p_x,p_y,p_z]$ , often used in special relativity calculations (see, e.g., http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four-momentum). Thus, energy (divided by the speed of light $ c$ ) is just the 0th component of the four-momentum.
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... space.B.11
Additionally, mechanics problems are formulated using the principle of least action, in which the action is defined as the time integral of the Lagrangian (usually the kinetic energy minus potential energy). Equations of motion, including Newton's second law, are obtained by finding the path which minimizes this action integral. The two main resulting formulations for the equations of motion (in addition to Newton's formulation) are called the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations, and they generalize more cleanly to constrained motion, more general phase-space coordinate systems, relativistic invariance, and problems in quantum mechanics. Another nice implication of the principle of least action is that the conservation of energy follows from homogeneity of time, and conservation of momentum from isotropy of space [272]. We will be fine with the classical Newtonian formulation here.
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... points:B.12
We denote by $ {\bf R}^3$ the set of all points in 3D Euclidean space. Thus $ \underline{x}_i$ has three coordinates, usually denoted $ x$ , $ y$ , and $ z$ , or (as we will use below), $ x_1$ , $ x_2$ , and $ x_3$ , all real scalars ( $ x_i\in{\bf R}$ ).
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... rotatingB.13
We are generally concerned with the rotation of a rigid body about some axis passing through its center of mass. Therefore, we will not distinguish between ``rotating,'' as the earth does to produce night and day, and ``revolving,'' as the earth does around the sun to produce the seasons. Thus, the individual mass particles of a rotating rigid body will be said to rotate about the axis of rotation, even though ``revolve'' might win more points on a middle-school exam.
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...,B.14
To create a rigid collection of point masses, we can imagine them to be interconnected by ``massless rigid rods'' or, equivalently, ideal springs having infinite stiffness.
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... densityB.15
We let $ f$ be a force density (a linear, spatial, force density, in newtons per meter) in order that it can be impulsive along $ x$ as well as $ t$ . We could have instead chosen a force $ f(t)$ applied at a particular point $ x$ .
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... frame|textbfB.16
At this stage, a better name for ``body-fixed frame'' would be center-of-mass frame. However, later on, we will see that not only do we need to follow the center-of-mass with the origin of our body-fixed frame, but its coordinate axes will also need to remain pointing in the so-called principal directions (defined in §B.4.16).
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... time.B.17
There is no problem with conservation of momentum here. We will see in §B.4.13 that, for a rotating mass $ m$ at radius $ r$ , the angular momentum $ L=I\omega=I(v/r)=(mr^2)(v/r)=mvr$ is always $ r$ times the instantaneous linear momentum $ p=mv$ . Thus, in our problem, converting angular momentum $ L=r/2$ to linear momentum $ p=1/2$ (in the body-fixed frame) verifies conservation of momentum when we add it to the linear momentum of the center of mass, which was also found to be $ 1/2$ . In other words, the total momentum is still $ 1$ , as initially delivered to the system.
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... vector.B.18
Another analogy is the right-hand screw, in which the screw drives in the direction of the vector when it is turned clockwise from behind, as is standard.
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...matrix!determinant|textbf:B.19
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/CrossProduct.html
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... rule|textbf.B.20
Rotate $ \underline{x}$ to $ \underline{y}$ by ``pushing'' with the fingers of the right hand, taking the smallest angle possible, and your thumb points in the positive direction for $ \underline{x}\times\underline{y}$ .
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... them:B.21
We are using ``$ \cdot$ '' (optionally, when it looks better) to denote scalar multiplication here, while in vector calculus, $ \underline{x}\cdot\underline{y}$ would normally denote a dot product of the two vectors $ \underline{x}$ and $ \underline{y}$ , but we are writing the dot product as $ \underline{x}\cdot\underline{y}=
\underline{x}^T\underline{y}= \underline{y}^T\underline{x}$ . (We could also use the ``inner-product'' notation $ \langle \underline{x},\underline{y}\rangle =\underline{x}^T\underline{y}$ for real vectors [454].) We could say that ``$ \cdot$ '' means ordinary multiplication when appearing between two scalars, and it means the dot product when used between two vectors. Between two matrices it would of course mean matrix multiplication.
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...conserved.B.22
Angular momentum is also conserved on the smallest scales, such as orbital angular momentum and the spin of fundamental particles such as an electron. Thus, conservation of angular momentum is a fundamental invariant in physics, along with conservation of energy and conservation of linear momentum. Since we live in 3D, that makes seven conserved quantities pertaining to motion of a mass through empty space: its kinetic energy, the three components of the linear momentum of its center of mass, and the three components of its angular momentum if it is rotating about its center of mass.
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... identityB.23
In maxima, one can verify this identity with the following input (the output of which is $ [0,0,0]$ ):
load(vect);
A:[A1,A2,A3]; B:[B1,B2,B3]; C:[C1,C2,C3];
expand(express((A ~ (B ~ C)) - (B * (C . A) - C * (A . B))));

Note that the cross-product is called the wedge product in maxima, and is denoted by a tilde (~).
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... balanced|textbf.B.24
http://www.ph.man.ac.uk/~mikeb/lecture/pc167/rigidbody/principal.html
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...JOSFP,B.25
https://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/Diagonalizing_State_Space_Model.html
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... revolution|textbf.B.26
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/SolidofRevolution.html
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... vector:B.27
Here we are using '$ \cdot$ ' to denote the ``dot product'' (or scalar product, or inner product), since that is the traditional notation in physics. Since it appears between two vectors, this usage is unambiguous. Thus, we have the following equivalent notations: $ \underline{x}\cdot{\underline{y}}=\underline{x}^T{\underline{y}}=\langle \underline{x},{\underline{y}}\rangle $ .
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... frameB.28
An inertial frame means an unaccelerated frame. That is, the coordinate system is not spinning or accelerated in any way. (Even gravity is neglected.)
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... equations:B.29
http://www.physicsforums.com/library.php?do=view_item&itemid=182
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... potential:B.30
This was first pointed out by Rayleigh [352, p. 39].
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... gas|textbf.B.31
Air has been measured to contain 75.54% nitrogen and 23.10% oxygen, both of which are diatomic gases. Thus, dry air is about 99% diatomic.
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...Fitzpatrick.B.32
This is a rare example in which quantum mechanics must be considered in an acoustic calculation!
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...B.33
http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/sound.html
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... air.B.34
Air is predominately diatomic due to nitrogen ($ N_2$ , 78%) and oxygen ($ O_2$ , 21%) comprising 99% of the Earth's atmosphere.
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...MDFT.B.35
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/mdft/Projection.html
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... relation.B.36
Do not be misled by the name ``dispersion relation'' into thinking that wave propagation is dispersive in this case--it is not. Dispersion occurs when $ c=\omega/k$ changes as a function of frequency; here it is a constant. Thus, the dispersion relation implies wave propagation dispersion when $ k$ is a nonlinear function of $ \omega $ .
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... expansion|textbfB.37
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spherical_Harmonics
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... expansion|textbf.B.38
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multipole_expansion
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... on.B.39
The second-order derivative matrix for creating quadrupoles has nine terms, but only five of them are different--three along the diagonal yield longitudinal quadrupoles, and two more from the top row, say providing lateral quadrupoles.
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...C.1
Any function of $ (t-x/c)$ , where $ t$ denotes time and $ x$ denotes position along a ``waveshape'', may be interpreted as a fixed waveshape traveling to the right (positive $ x$ direction), with speed $ c$ . Similarly, any function of $ (t+x/c)$ may be seen as a waveshape traveling to the left (negative $ x$ direction) at speed $ c$ meters per second. In both cases, $ x$ denotes a position along the waveshape, and $ t$ denotes time. For any fixed $ t$ , a ``snapshot'' of the waveshape may be seen by evaluating along $ x$ .
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... velocity|textbfC.2
The term phase velocity is normally used when it differs from the group velocity, as in stiff, dispersive strings (§C.6). In the present context, the phase velocity and group velocity are the same, so the term ``wave velocity'' is unambigous here. See the analogous terms phase delay and group delay in [452] for more details about the difference.
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...C.3
A detailed derivation of the usual stiff-string wave equation Eq.$ \,$ (C.32) is given by Morse in [320] or [321]. Derivations of more elaborate wave equations including rotary inertia and shear effects are given in Graff [170, pp. 180-195] (``flexural waves in thin rods''). See also Kolsky [263]. See Fletcher and Rossing [145] regarding stiff piano strings, and Cremer [95] regarding stiffness effects in violin strings (principally the prevention of sharp corners in the string).
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... wave.C.4
The sum of the left- and right-going components, $ f=f^{{+}}+f^{{-}}$ , equals the net force acting to the right.
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... junction.C.5
When the wave impedance is complex, the junction effectively has state, so that energy, but not necessarily power, is conserved. See §C.18 for an example.
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... scattering.C.6
Here it is assumed that $ -k_i$ and $ 1\pm k_i$ in the Kelly-Lochbaum junction can be computed exactly from $ k_i$ in the number system being used. This is the case in two's complement arithmetic as is typically used in practice.
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... waveguides.C.7
This section is adapted from [438,437].
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... disk.C.8
The strict outer disk is defined as the region $ \left\vert z\right\vert>1$ in the extended complex plane.
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... ``right-going.''C.9
In the acoustic tube literature which involves only a cascade chain of acoustic waveguides, $ x^{+}$ is taken to be traveling to the right along the axis of the tube [299]. In classical network theory [35] and in circuit theory, velocity (current) at the terminals of an $ N$ -port device is by convention taken to be positive when it flows into the device.
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... foundC.10
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/Similarity_Transformations.html
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... magnitude:C.11
While the literature seems to mention this property only for prime numbers $ p$ , it is straightforward to show that it holds in fact for all positive odd integers $ p$ . Prime values of $ p$ have advantages, however, when harmonics of the ``design frequency'' are considered.
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... algorithms.C.12
See [105] for discussion of a wider variety of digital sine generation methods.
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... algorithm,C.13
The ``magic circle'' algorithm is so named because it generates closed curves in the $ (x_1,x_2)$ plane even when numerical precision is very low. For this reason, it has long been used as an algorithm for drawing ``circles'' (actually ellipses) in computer graphics. The algorithm is derived naturally by numerically integrating the derivative relationships between sine and cosine:

\begin{eqnarray*}
d\cos(x)/dx &=& -\sin(x) \quad\,\,\Rightarrow\,\,\quad d\cos(x) = -dx\cdot\sin(x)\\
d\sin(x)/dx &=& \;\;\cos(x) \quad\,\,\Rightarrow\,\,\quad d\sin(x) = dx\cdot\cos(x).
\end{eqnarray*}

The magic circle algorithm is easily shown to be equivalent to the lowpass output of the infinite-$ Q$ second-order digital state variable filter in ``Chamberlin form'' (defined in, e.g., [479,79]).

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... amplitude),C.14
When $ r_n=r$ is constant, the time constant $ \tau $ of the ensuing exponential growth or decay may be found by solving $ r=e^{-T/\tau}$ for $ \tau $ to obtain $ \tau = -T/$ln$ (r)$ , where $ T$ denotes the sampling interval, and ln$ (r)$ denotes the natural logarithm of $ r$ .
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... analysisC.15
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/filters/State_Space_Models.html
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... velocity.C.16
More precisely, it could be expressed as $ [{\dot u}(t,x)+{\ddot u}(t,x)\,dx]/2$ , but this introduces a term that is second-order in $ d x$ that would ultimately be dropped.
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... network.F.1
Wave digital filters are not the same thing as digital waveguide networks, however, because the wave variables in a wave digital filter have a compressed frequency spectrum (from the bilinear transform), while the signals in a digital waveguide network have a bandlimited spectrum which is not warped.
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... waveguideF.2
Here, it is perhaps most concrete to think in terms of electrical equivalent circuits, so that the mass is an inductor and a ``waveguide'' is a ``transmission line.''
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... mass,F.3
The phase delay, for example, of the reflectance $ (1-s)/(1+s)$ of an ideal spring is given by

$\displaystyle P(\omega) = -\frac{\angle\frac{1-j\omega}{1+j\omega}}{\omega}.
$

At $ \omega=1$ rad/sec, in particular, the phase delay is $ P(1)=-\angle[(1-j)/(1+j)]=-\angle(-j) = \pi/2$ . Since the period is $ 2\pi$ when $ \omega=1$ , this is a quarter-cycle of delay.

After the bilinear transform $ s=(z-1)/(z+1)$ , the phase delay becomes

$\displaystyle P_d(\omega_d) = -\frac{\angle e^{-j\omega_d T}}{\omega_d}
= -\frac{-\omega_d T}{\omega_d} = T,
$

where $ \omega_d$ is defined by $ \omega = \tan(\omega_d T/2)$ (the relationship between continuous-time frequency and discrete-time frequency imposed by the bilinear transform). Thus, the phase delay comes out to exactly one sample at each frequency. Checking the point $ \omega=1 \leftrightarrow \omega_d T = \pi/2 \Rightarrow f_d = f_s/4$ , i.e., four samples per period, we find that one sample of delay does in fact correspond to a quarter-cycle of delay.

The same holds true for the group delay of the spring reflectance:

$\displaystyle G_d(\omega_d) \isdef -\frac{d}{d\omega_d}\angle e^{-j\omega_d T} = T
$

We see that the frequency-warping under the bilinear transform serves to move each frequency to the unique point along the unit circle at which the reflectance of a mass or spring happens to be exactly one sample. The mass reflectance additionally inverts.
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...tankwdf.F.4
Note that the wave variables are now labeled in element-centric notation as opposed to adaptor-centric notation:

\begin{eqnarray*}
f_k(n) &=& f^{{+}}_k(n) + f^{{-}}_k(n) \qquad\hbox{(Spring Force)}\\
f_m(n) &=& f^{{+}}_m(n) + f^{{-}}_m(n) \qquad\hbox{(Mass Force)}
\end{eqnarray*}

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... limit.F.5
Note that the mass and velocity limits are tied together such that $ mv^2/2=$ constant. This information is lost in the final limits because the expression $ \infty\cdot 0^2/2$ is ``indeterminate''.
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...SmithLAC08.H.1
http://ccrma.stanford.edu/realsimple/faust_strings
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