The main elements of the piano we need to model are the
From the bridge (which runs along the soundboard) to each ``virtual microphone'' (or ``virtual ear''), the soundboard, enclosure, and listening space can be well modeled as a high-order LTI filter characterized by its impulse response (Chapter 8). Such long impulse responses can be converted to more efficient recursive digital filters by various means (Chapter 3,§8.6.2).
A straightforward piano model along the lines indicated above turns out to be relatively expensive computationally. Therefore, we also discuss, in §9.4.4 below, the more specialized commuted piano synthesis technique , which is capable of high quality piano synthesis at low cost relative to other model-based approaches. It can be seen as a hybrid method in which the string is physically modeled, the hammer is represented by a signal model, and the acoustic resonators (soundboard, enclosure, etc.) are handled by ordinary sampling (of their impulse response).