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Literature on Piano Acoustics and Synthesis

There has been much research into the musical acoustics of the piano, including models of piano strings [545,18,75,76,145,42] and the piano hammer [495,63,179,60,488,165,489]. Additionally, there has been considerable work to date on the problem of piano synthesis by digital waveguide methods [469,521,525,56,42].

A careful computational model of the piano, partially based on physical modeling and suitable for high-quality real-time sound synthesis, was developed by Bensa in the context of his thesis work [42]. Related publications include [43,45,46].

An excellent simulation of the clavichord, also using the commuted waveguide synthesis technique, is described in [503]. A detailed simulation of the harpsichord, along similar lines, but with some interesting new variations, may be found in [516].

The 2003 paper of Bank et al. [29] includes good summaries of prior research on elements of piano modeling such as efficient computational string models, loss-filter design, dispersion filter design, and soundboard models. A more recent paper in this area is [30].


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``Physical Audio Signal Processing'', by Julius O. Smith III, W3K Publishing, 2010, ISBN 978-0-9745607-2-4.
Copyright © 2014-03-23 by Julius O. Smith III
Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA),   Stanford University
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