This chapter discusses aspects of synthesis models for specific musical instruments such as guitars, pianos, woodwinds, bowed strings, and brasses. Initially we look at model components for electric guitars, followed by some special considerations for acoustic guitars. Next we focus on basic models for string excitation, first by a mass (a simplified piano hammer), then by a damped spring (plectrum model). Piano modeling is then considered, using commuted synthesis for the acoustic resonators and a parametric signal-model for the force-pulse of the hammer. Finally, elementary synthesis of single-reed woodwinds, such as the clarinet, and bowed-string instruments, such as the violin, are summarized, and some pointers are given regarding other wind and percussion instruments.