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## Scattering Junctions

Returning to the input-output'' waveguide defined in §4.2.1 and §4.2.2, we now must deal with connecting bidirectional delay lines; this is done in the same way as in the wave digital filtering framework, namely through the use of Kirchoff's Laws, which conserve instantaneous power at a connection. The resulting equations relating input to output waves at such a connection or scattering junction are identical to the adaptor equations for wave digital filters already mentioned in §2.3.5. For completeness sake, we will re-derive the scattering equations for a series connection of bidirectional delay lines, of impedances , .

At such a series connection, we must have

 (4.12) (4.13)

where is defined to be the junction current common to all waveguides.

Thus, we have

where the equation numbers appear over the equalities to which they pertain. Using (4.12), we can then write the equation used to calculate the junction current from the incoming current waves

as well as the scattering equation

where we have defined the junction impedance by

In terms of voltage waves, using (4.4a) and (4.4b), the scattering equations can be written as

This is identical to the definition of a wave digital series adaptor (2.31) for voltage waves, where we replace by , by and by , for .

The scattering equations for a dual parallel connection are similar under the replacement of and by and , by and by the junction admittance, defined by

so that we have

 (4.14)

and

 (4.15)

The representation we will use for scattering junctions in the waveguide networks in this and the subsequent chapter will usually be as shown in Figure 4.3 (in the case of a connection of four waveguides).

A waveguide's immittance is placed at the port at which it is connected to the junction, and the junction quantity to be calculated from incoming waves appears at the center of the junction. Sometimes, if there is no room in the figure, we will indicate the immittance of a waveguide by an overbrace (see, e.g., Figure 4.8). In the case of electrical variables, a junction current is calculated at a series junction, and a junction voltage at a parallel junction, but when we move to mechanical systems in the next chapter, we will of course use different variable names. A small s'' or p'' is placed in a corner of the junction in order to indicate that the junction is series or parallel, respectively. In addition, because it is only necessary to propagate one type of wave in a bidirectional delay line, a graphical representation of a waveguide network will always imply the use of voltage waves everywhere. This is the same convention that is used in wave digital signal flow graphs. This is important, because it will be recalled from §4.2.2 that current waves require an additional sign inversion that is not shown in the network diagrams.

Instantaneous power is preserved at the scattering junction (here again, as in the WDF case, the scattering junction is no more than a wave variable implementation of Kirchoff's Laws, which preserve power by definition). The power-normalization strategy employed in the wave digital filter setting can also be used here as well, and gives rise to the same orthogonality property of the scattering junction in either the series or parallel case (see §2.3.5). Power-normalized waves can be used in order to construct time-varying passive waveguide networks [165], though for time-invariant problems, the use of such power-normalized quantities involves more arithmetic operations.

Next: Vector Waveguides and Scattering Up: Digital Waveguides Previous: Note on the Different
Stefan Bilbao 2002-01-22