Digitization of Lumped Models

Since lumped models are described by *differential equations*,
they are digitized (brought into the digital-signal domain) by
converting them to corresponding *finite-difference equations*
(or simply ``*difference equations*''). General aspects of
finite difference schemes are discussed in Appendix D. This
chapter introduces a couple of elementary methods in common use:

- Finite Difference Approximation

- Bilinear Transformation

- Application of the Bilinear Transform

- Limitations of Lumped Element Digitization

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Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA), Stanford University