In this section, adapted from , a digital sinusoidal oscillator derived from digital waveguide theory is described which has good properties for VLSI implementation. Its main features are no wavetable and a computational complexity of only one multiply per sample when amplitude and frequency are constant. Three additions are required per sample. A piecewise exponential amplitude envelope is available for the cost of a second multiplication per sample, which need not be as expensive as the tuning multiply. In the presence of frequency modulation (FM), the amplitude coefficient can be varied to exactly cancel amplitude modulation (AM) caused by changing the frequency of oscillation.