There are many methods for converting ODEs and PDEs to difference
equations [53,55,484]. As will be discussed in
§7.3, a very simple, order-preserving method is to
replace each derivative with a *finite difference*:

for sufficiently small (the sampling interval). This is formally known as the

As a simple example, consider a mass
driven along a frictionless
surface by a driving force
, as in Fig.1.1, and
suppose we wish to know the resulting velocity of the mass
,
assuming it starts out with position and velocity 0
at time 0
(*i.e.*,
). Then, from Newton's
relation, the ODE is

and the difference equation resulting from the backward-difference substitution is

Solving for yields the following

with . In general, the driving force could depend on the current state of the system (

As , the forward and backward difference operators approach the same limit (since is presumed continuous). Using this we obtain what is called an

with .

A finite difference scheme is said to be *explicit* when it can
be computed forward in time in terms of quantities from previous time
steps, as in this example. Thus, an explicit finite difference scheme
can be implemented in real time as a *causal digital filter*.

There are also *implicit* finite-difference schemes which may
correspond to *non-causal* digital filters [452].
Implicit schemes are generally solved using iterative and/or
matrix-inverse methods, and they are typically used *offline*
(not in real time) [558].

There is also an interesting class of explicit schemes called
*semi-implicit finite-difference schemes*
which are obtained from
an implicit scheme by imposing a fixed upper limit on the number of
iterations in, say, Newton's method for iterative solution
[558]. Thus, any implicit scheme that can be quickly solved by
iterative methods can be converted to an explicit scheme for real-time
usage. One technique for improving the iterative convergence rate is
to work at a very high sampling rate, and initialize the iteration for
each sample at the solution for the previous sample [558].

In this book, we will be concerned almost exclusively with
*explicit* linear finite-difference schemes, *i.e.*, *causal
digital filter models* of one sort or another. That is, the main
thrust is to obtain as much ``physical modeling power'' as possible
from ordinary digital filters and delay lines. We will also be able to
easily add memoryless nonlinearities where needed (such as implemented
by table look-ups and short polynomial evaluations) as a direct result
of the physical meaning of the signal samples.

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