In this chapter, we looked at the fundamentals of lumped modeling elements such as masses, springs, and dashpots. The important concept of driving-point impedance was defined and discussed, and electrical equivalent circuits were developed, along with associated elementary (circuit) network theory. Finally, we looked at basic ways of digitizing lumped elements and more complex ODEs and PDEs, including a first glance at some nonlinear methods.
Practical examples of lumped models begin in §9.3.1. In particular, piano-like models require a ``hammer'' to strike the string, and §9.3.1 explicates the simplest case of an ideal point-mass striking an ideal vibrating string. In that model, when the mass is in contact with the string, it creates a scattering junction on the string having reflection and transmission coefficients that are first-order filters. These filters are then digitized via the bilinear transform. The ideal string itself is of course modeled as a digital waveguide. A detailed development of wave scattering at impedance-discontinuities is presented for digital waveguide models in §C.8, and for wave digital filters in Appendix F.