For its tutorial value, let's also show that the PDE of Ruiz  is ill posed, i.e., that at least one component of the solution is a growing exponential. In this case, setting in Eq. (C.28), which we restate as
yields the characteristic polynomial equation
By the Routh-Hurwitz theorem, there is at least one root in the right-half -plane.
It is interesting to note that Ruiz discovered the exponentially growing solution, but simply dropped it as being non-physical. In the work of Chaigne and Askenfelt , it is believed that the finite difference approximation itself provided the damping necessary to eliminate the unstable solution . (See §7.3.2 for a discussion of how finite difference approximations can introduce damping.) Since the damping effect is sampling-rate dependent, there is an upper bound to the sampling rate that can be used before an unstable mode appears.