Since a harmonic oscillator is produced by a simple mass-spring system, a mechanical generator for the harmonic basis functions of Bernoulli is readily obtained by equating Newton's second law for the reaction force of an ideal mass , with Robert Hooke's spring force law (published in 1676), where is an empirical spring constant . Hooke (1635-1703) was a contemporary of Newton's who carried out extensive experiments with springs in search of a spring-regulated clock [261, pp. 274-288]. Hooke's law was generalized to 3D by Cauchy (1789-1857) as the familiar linear relationship between six components of stress and strain.A.7
Elementary mass-spring models have found much use in computational physical models for purposes of sound synthesis [69,92]. For example, a mass-spring oscillator is typically used to model a brass-player's lips , piano hammers , and is sometimes included in woodwind-reed models .