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In the closed network of Figure 1.10, we have left the two oneports unspecified. Suppose we connect an inductor, of constant inductance at the lefthand port, and a capacitor of constant capacitance at the righthand port, as shown in Figure 1.11(a). Then the voltagecurrent relations are defined by
When these relations are closed by Kirchoff's parallel connection rules (1.23), it is possible to write a single secondorder ODE describing the timeevolution of the circuit state,
where stands for any of the voltages or currents in the network. This network thus behaves as a harmonic oscillator, of frequency
; the voltages and currents, assumed real, evolve according to
for some arbitrary constants and determined by the initial voltages and currents in the network. The network is also lossless; if we define the total stored energy of this network by

(1.25) 
then
In other words, energy is traded back and forth between the two circuit elements, but is not dissipated.
Figure 1.11:
The LC harmonic oscillator (a) a parallel connection of an inductor, of inductance and a capacitor of capacitance , and (b) the corresponding wave digital network.

Though we have not explicitly derived the forms of the wave digital inductor and capacitor, this is a good opportunity to see what these elements look likethe wave digital network corresponding to the LC harmonic oscillator circuit is shown in Figure 1.11(b). (The reader may glance ahead to §2.3.4 for a glimpse of how these forms are arrived at.) We have a parallel adaptor, which is a digital signal processing block defined by equations (1.24), terminated on delay elements (one of which incorporates a sign inversion). Special choices of the port resistances and (marked in the figure) were chosen in order to obtain these simple signalflow graphs. This diagram implies a recursion, which, like the digital waveguide network methods consists of a scattering step, and a delay step (possibly with sign inversion). Because it makes use of only two delay operators, it should be obvious that this simple network must behave as a twopole resonatorthe discretetime counterpart to the continuoustime harmonic oscillator. The wave digital network thus behaves as a numerical integrator.
We can define the total discretetime stored energy of this network by
which is simply a weighted sum of the squares of the signal values stored in the delay registers at time step . Clearly, this quantity remains unchanged after undergoing delays and the scattering operation, i.e., we have
constant 

It is simple to identify this quantity with the energy (1.25) of the continuoustime LC network. Although this example is very simple, the same ideas can be applied to large networks, and the result is always an explicitly recursible structure for which passivity can be simply guaranteed.
Next: Multidimensional WDFs as PDE
Up: A General Approach: Multidimensional
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Stefan Bilbao
20020122