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Example AM Spectra

Equation (4) can be used to write down the spectral representation of $ x_m(t)$ by inspection, as shown in Fig. 3. In the example of Fig. 3, we have $ f_c=100$ Hz and $ f_m=20$ Hz, where, as always, $ \omega=2\pi f$. For comparison, the spectral magnitude of an unmodulated $ 100$ Hz sinusoid is shown in Fig. 1. Note in Fig. 3 how each of the two sinusoidal components at $ \pm100$ Hz have been ``split'' into two ``side bands'', one $ 20$ Hz higher and the other $ 20$ Hz lower, that is, $ \pm100\pm20=\{-120,-80,80,120\}$. Note also how the amplitude of the split component is divided equally among its two side bands.

Figure: Spectral magnitude representation of the sinusoidally modulated sinusoid $ \sin(40\pi t)\sin(200\pi t)$ defined in Eq. (3). Phase is not shown.
\begin{figure}\input fig/sineamfd.pstex_t

Recall that $ x_m(t)$ was defined as the second term of Eq. (1). The first term is simply the original unmodulated signal. Therefore, we have effectively been considering AM with a ``very large'' modulation index. In the more general case of Eq. (1) with $ a_m(t)$ given by Eq. (2), the magnitude of the spectral representation appears as shown in Fig. 4.

Figure: Spectral representation of the sinusoidally modulated sinusoid $ [1+ \sin(40\pi t)]\sin(200\pi t)$ from Eq. (1), with $ \alpha =1$, and $ a_m(t)$ given by Eq. (2).
\begin{figure}\input fig/sineamgfd.pstex_t

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``Sinusoidal Modulation of Sinusoids'', by Julius O. Smith III, (Excerpt from ... ).
Copyright © 2005-12-28 by Julius O. Smith III
Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA),   Stanford University
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