Damping Ratio

*Damping ratio*
is defined to conveniently divide
the underdamped, critically damped, and overdamped conditions at unity
for a second-order system.

The damping ratio (zeta) is defined by

where is defined above in Eq.(E.8) as the peak frequency divided by the peak bandwidth, and and are defined above in Eq.(E.7).

As shown in Eq.(E.9), a damping factor of 1 is *critically
damped*, while a damping factor less than 1 is *underdamped*, and
is *overdamped*.

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