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Implementation of Repeated Poles

Fig.9.5 illustrates an efficient implementation of terms due to a repeated pole with multiplicity three, contributing the additive terms

$\displaystyle \frac{r_1}{1-pz^{-1}}
+ \frac{r_2}{(1-pz^{-1})^2}
+ \frac{r_3}{(1-pz^{-1})^3}
$

to the transfer function. Note that, using this approach, the total number of poles implemented equals the total number of poles of the system. For clarity, a single real (or complex) pole is shown. Implementing a repeated complex-conjugate pair as a repeated real second-order section is analogous.

Figure 9.5: Implementation of a pole $ p$ repeated three times.
\includegraphics{eps/repeatedpole}


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``Introduction to Digital Filters with Audio Applications'', by Julius O. Smith III, (September 2007 Edition).
Copyright © 2014-03-23 by Julius O. Smith III
Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA),   Stanford University
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