A more general linear constant coefficient differential equation can be written as:

or, in the frequency domain, assuming zero initial conditions,

We can define a transfer-function relationship as follows:

where we have normalized to . Note that is a rational function of of order .

If
and
are measured at the *same point*, then
is a *driving point impedance*, as depicted below:

If the circuit (or mechanical system) is *physically passive*,
then
must be *positive real*.

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