Next  |  Prev  |  Top  |  REALSIMPLE Top


J. l. R. d'Alembert,
``Investigation of the curve formed by a vibrating string, 1747,''
Acoustics: Historical and Philosophical Development
(R. B. Lindsay, ed.), pp. 119-123, Stroudsburg: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, 1973.

A. V. Oppenheim and R. W. Schafer,
Digital Signal Processing,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975.

J. O. Smith,
``Introduction to Digital Filters with Audio Applications'', jos/filters/, Sept. 2007,
online book.

M.R. Schroeder,
``Improved Quasi-Stereophony and Colorless Artificial Reverberation''
Journ. Audio Eng. Soc.,
33:1061, 1961.

J. A. Moorer,
``About this reverberation business''
Computer Music Journal
vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 13-18, 1979.

J. O. Smith,
``Physical modeling using digital waveguides,''
Computer Music Journal, vol. 16, pp. 74-91, Winter 1992,
special issue: Physical Modeling of Musical Instruments, Part I. jos/pmudw/.

A. Chaigne,
``Viscoelastic properties of nylon guitar strings,''
Catgut Acoustical Society Journal, Series II, vol. 1, pp. 21-27, May 1991.

J. O. Smith,
``Efficient synthesis of stringed musical instruments,''
Proceedings of the 1993 International Computer Music Conference, Tokyo, pp. 64-71, Computer Music Association, 1993

G. Weinreich,
``Coupled piano strings,''
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 62, pp. 1474-1484, Dec 1977

N. Lee, A. Chaigne, J. O. Smith III, K. Arcas,
``Measuring and Understanding the Gypsy Guitar,''
International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, Barcelona, Spain, September 9-12, 2007.

J. Laroche,
``Time and pitch scale modification of audio signals,''
Applications of DSP to Audio & Acoustics (M. Kahrs and K. Brandenburg, eds.), pp. 279-309,
Boston/Dordrecht/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998

J. O. Smith,
``An allpass approach to digital phasing and flanging,''
Proceedings of the 1984 International Computer Music Conference, Paris, Computer Music Association, 1984, CCRMA Technical Report STAN-M-21,

J. O. Smith, S. Serafin, J. Abel, and D. Berners,
``Doppler simulation and the leslie,''
Proceedings of the COST-G6 Conference on Digital Audio Effects (DAFx-02), Hamburg, Germany, pp. 13-20, September 26 2002,

R. W. Schafer and L. R. Rabiner,
``A digital signal processing approach to interpolation,''
Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 61, pp. 692-702, June 1973.

J. O. Smith and P. Gossett,
``A flexible sampling-rate conversion method,''
Proceedings of the International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, San Diego, vol. 2, (New York), pp. 19.4.1-19.4.2, IEEE Press, Mar. 1984,
expanded tutorial and associated free software available at the Digital Audio Resampling Home Page: jos/resample/.

J. O. Smith and B. Friedlander,
``Adaptive interpolated time-delay estimation,''
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 21, pp. 180-199, Mar. 1985.

T. I. Laakso, V. Välimäki, M. Karjalainen, and U. K. Laine,
``Splitting the Unit Delay-Tools for Fractional Delay Filter Design,''
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 13, pp. 30-60, Jan. 1996.

W. Putnam and J. O. Smith,
``Design of fractional delay filters using convex optimization,''
Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics, New Paltz, NY, (New York), IEEE Press, Oct. 1997, jos/resample/optfir.pdf.

D. A. Jaffe and J. O. Smith,
``Extensions of the Karplus-Strong plucked string algorithm,''
Computer Music Journal, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 56-69, 1983,

K. Karplus and A. Strong,
``Digital synthesis of plucked string and drum timbres,''
Computer Music Journal, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 43-55, 1983,

A. Chaigne,
``On the use of finite differences for musical synthesis. application to plucked stringed instruments,''
Journal d'Acoustique, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 181-211, 1992.

J. O. Smith and S. A. Van Duyne,
``Commuted piano synthesis,''
Proceedings of the 1995 International Computer Music Conference, Banff, pp. 319-326, Computer Music Association, 1995, jos/pdf/svd95.pdf

N. H. Fletcher and T. D. Rossing,
The Physics of Musical Instruments, 2nd Edition,
New York: Springer Verlag, 1998.

M. E. Van Valkenburg,
Introduction to Modern Network Synthesis,
New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1960.

R. W. Newcomb,
Linear Multiport Synthesis,
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966.

V. Belevitch,
Classical Network Theory,
San Francisco: Holden Day, 1968.

M. Karjalainen, V. Välimäki, and Z. JŠnosy,
``Towards high-quality sound synthesis of the guitar and string instruments,''
Proceedings of the 1993 International Computer Music Conference, Tokyo, pp. 56-63, Computer Music Association, Sept. 10-15 1993,
http: // vpv/publications/icmc93-guitar.htm.

J.O. Smith,
Physical Audio Signal Processing, August 2007 Edition, jos/pasp/, online book, accessed 11/21/07.

L. V. King
On the Acoustic Radiation Pressure on Spheres
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Vol. 147, No. 861. (Nov. 15, 1934), pp. 212-240.

O. Christensen and R.B. Vistisen,
A simple model for low frequency guitar function,
J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 68, pp. 758-766, 1980.

B.E. Richardson, T. J. W. Hill and S.J. Richardson,
Input admittance and sound field measurements of ten classical guitars,
Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics 2002, vol. 24(2), pp. 1-10, IOA.

J. P. Dalmont and A. M. Bruneau,
Acoustic impedance measurements: plane-wave mode and first helical mode contributions.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 91 (1992), pp. 3026-3033.

N. Lee, Z. Duan, J. O. Smith III,
Excitation Extraction for Guitar Tones,
Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference (ICMC07), Copenhagen, Denmark, August 27-31, 2007.

Y. Hua and T. Sarkar,
``Matrix pencil method for estimating parameters of exponentially damped/undamped sinusoids in noise'',
IEEE Trans. Acoustics, Speech, Signal Processing, vol. ASSP-38, no. 5, pp. 814-824, May 1990.

J. Laroche and J. L. Meillier,
Multichannel excitation filter modeling of percussive sounds with application to the piano,
IEEE Trans. Speech and Audio Processing, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 329-344, Apr. 1994.

T. Tolonen,
Model-based analysis and resynthesis of acoustic guitar tones,
Masterís thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland, Jan. 1998, Report 46, Laboratory of Acoustics and Audio Signal Processing.

V. Välimäki and T. Tolonen,
``Development and calibration of a guitar synthesizer'',
J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol. 46, no. 9, Sept. 1998,
Proceedings of the 103rd Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, New York, Sept. 1997.

X. Serra,
``Musical sound modeling with sinusoids plus noise'',
in Musical Signal Processing, C. Roads, S. Pope, A. Picialli, and G. De Poli, Eds., pp. 91-122. Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers, Netherlands, June 1997.

N. Laurenti and G. D. Poli,
A method for spectrum separation and envelope estimation of the residual in spectrum modeling of musical sound,
Proc. Int. Conf. Digital Audio Effects (DAFx-00), Verona, Italy, 2000,

J. O. Smith and X. Serra,
``PARSHL: A program for the analysis/synthesis of inharmonic sounds based on a sinusoidal representation'',
in Proc. 1987 Int. Computer Music Conf., Champaign-Urbana. 1987, Computer Music Association.
Expanded version available on-line at

N. Lee, R. Cassidy, J. O. Smith III,
Use of Energy Decay Relief (EDR) to Estimate Partial-Overtone Decay-Times in a Freely Vibrating String,
Invited Paper at The Musical Acoustics Sessions at the Joint ASA-ASJ Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii (2006)

J. O. Smith,
Techniques for Digital Filter Design and System Identification with Application to the Violin,
PhD thesis, Elec. Engineering Dept., Stanford University (CCRMA), June 1983,
CCRMA Technical Report STAN-M-14,

B. Bank and V. Välimäki,
``Robust loss filter design for digital waveguide synthesis of string tones,''
IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 10, pp. 18-20, January 2003.

C. Lambourg and A. Chaigne,
``Measurements and modeling of the admittance matrix at the bridge in guitars,''
Proceedings of the Stockholm Musical Acoustics Conference (SMAC-93), pp. 448-453, July 1993.

K. Bradley, M. H. Cheng, and V. L. Stonick,
``Automated analysis and computationally efficient synthesis of acoustic guitar strings and body,''
Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics, New Paltz, NY, (New York), pp. 238-241, IEEE Press, Oct. 1995, Session 9a, paper 7, 4 pages.

Next  |  Prev  |  Top  |  REALSIMPLE Top

Download phys_mod_overview.pdf

``Virtual Stringed Instruments'', by Nelson Lee and Julius O. Smith III,
REALSIMPLE Project — work supported by the Wallenberg Global Learning Network .
Released 2008-02-20 under the Creative Commons License (Attribution 2.5), by Nelson Lee and Julius O. Smith III
Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA),   Stanford University