Elliot Kermit Canfield-Dafilou
Modal Analysis and Synthesis
of the University of Michigan Lurie Carillon
Modal representations---decomposing the resonances of objects into their vibrational modes has historically been a powerful tool for studying and synthesizing the sounds of physical objects, but it also provides a flexible framework for abstract sound synthesis. In this paper, we demonstrate a variety of musically relevant ways to modify the model upon resynthesis employing a carillon model as a case study. Using a set of audio recordings of the sixty bells of the Robert and Ann Lurie Carillon recorded at the University of Michigan, we present a modal analysis of these recordings, in which we decompose the sound of each bell into a sum of decaying sinusoids. Each sinusoid is characterized by a modal frequency, exponential decay rate, and initial complex amplitude. This analysis yields insight into the timbre of each individual bell as well as the entire carillon as an ensemble. It also yields a powerful parametric synthesis model for reproducing bell sounds and bell-based audio effects.
Here you can download modal data of the University of Michigan Lurie Carillon. The data are provided in
csv format. The data are published in several ways:
One-Bell-Per-File, Frequency-Sorted where each bell's data are in separate files. The columns are ordered FREQUENCY, AMPLITUDE, DECAY, PHASE, and each row corresponds to a different vibrational mode.
One-Bell-Per-File, Amplitude-Sorted where each bell's data are in separate files. The columns are ordered FREQUENCY, AMPLITUDE, DECAY, PHASE, and each row corresponds to a different vibrational mode.
Parameter-Specific-Files where each modal parameter (frequency, amplitude, decay, and phase) is presented in a separate file. In this scheme, the data are organized as a matrix where each row corresponds to mode number and each column corresponds to an individual bell. When a bell has a small number of modes, the extra rows are padded with
You can download the modal data here.
Note: The second lowest bell does not physically exist in the Lurie Carillon and our numbering scheme takes this into account in jumping from bell number 0 to bell number 2 before continuing sequentially up to 59.
The data were analyzed by Elliot K. Canfield-Dafilou and Kurt J. Werner.
|Medium Pitched Bell with Shorter Decay Rate|
|High Pitched Bell with Long Decay Rate|
|Extrapolate Down an Octave|
|Interpolate Quarter-Tone Bells|
|Arpeggiate Partials (Up)|
|Arpeggiate Partials (Down)|
|Randomize Partial Entries|
|Add Doublets (1)|
|Add Doublets (2)|
|Add Vibrato (1)|
|Add Vibrato (2)|
|Add FM Modulation|
|Add Tremolo (Slow)|
|Add Tremolo (Fast)|
These files are provided under a CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSE Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
You are free to:
Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.
The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.
Under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
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The 60 bells of the Lurie Carillon were recorded and edited in October 2016 by Isaac Levine with the assistance of Ashton Baker, Rowena Ng, Rachael Park, and Anjana Rajagopal and the support of Tiffany Ng (UM Organ Department and John Granzow (UM Department of Performing Arts Technology). The original samples can be downloaded here.