It may seem disturbing that such a simple, passive, physically rigorous simulation of a mass-spring oscillator should have to make use of state variables which grow without bound for the limiting cases of simple harmonic motion at frequencies zero and half the sampling rate. This is obviously a valid concern in practice as well. However, it is easy to show that this only happens at dc and , and that there is a true degeneracy at these frequencies, even in the physics. For all frequencies in the audio range (e.g., for typical sampling rates), such state variable growth cannot occur. Let's take closer look at this phenomenon, first from a signal processing point of view, and second from a physical point of view.