It is customary in the wave digital filter literature to define the
*beta parameters*
as

where are the port impedances (attached element reference impedances). In terms of the beta parameters, the force-wave series adaptor performs the following computations:

However, we normally employ a mixture of parallel and series adaptors,
while keeping a force-wave simulation. Since
, we obtain, after a small amount of algebra, the following
recipe for the series force-wave adaptor:

We see that we have multiplies and additions as in the parallel-adaptor case. However, we again have from Eq. (F.23) that

so that we may implement one beta parameter as 2 minus the sum of the rest, thus eliminating a multiplication by creating a

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