Number Systems for Digital Audio

This appendix discusses number formats used in digital audio. They
are divided into ``linear'' and ``logarithmic.'' Linear number
systems include binary integer fixed-point, fractional fixed-point,
one's complement, and two's complement fixed-point. The
-law
format is a popular hybrid between linear and logarithmic amplitude
encoding. Floating-point combines a linear mantissa with a logarithmic
``exponent,'' and logarithmic fixed-point can be viewed as a special
case of floating-point in which there is no mantissa. This appendix
does not cover audio *coding* methods such as MPEG (MP3)
[5,7,52,6]
or Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) [12,42,43].

- Linear Number Systems
- Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
- Binary Integer Fixed-Point Numbers
- Fractional Binary Fixed-Point Numbers
- How Many Bits are Enough for Digital Audio?
- When Do We Have to Swap Bytes?
^{G.5}

- Logarithmic Number Systems for Audio

- Round-Off Error Variance

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Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA), Stanford University