This section gives condensed analysis summaries of the four most elementary digital filters: the one-zero, one-pole, two-pole, and two-zero filters. Despite their relative simplicity, they are quite valuable to master in practice. In particular, recall from Chapter 9 that every causal, finite-order, LTI filter (any difference equation of the form Eq.(5.1)) may be factored into a series and/or parallel combinationof such sections. Implementing high-order filters as parallel and/or series combinations of low-order sections offers several advantages, such as numerical robustness and easier/safer control in real time.