emacs (1)


       emacs - GNU project Emacs


       emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ...  ]


       GNU  Emacs is a version of Emacs, written by the author of the original
       (PDP-10) Emacs, Richard Stallman.
       The primary documentation of GNU Emacs is  in  the  GNU  Emacs  Manual,
       which  you  can  read on line using Info, a subsystem of Emacs.  Please
       look there for complete and up-to-date documentation.  This man page is
       updated  only  when someone volunteers to do so; the Emacs maintainers'
       priority goal is to minimize the amount of time  this  man  page  takes
       away from other more useful projects.
       The  user functionality of GNU Emacs encompasses everything other Emacs
       editors do, and it is easily extensible since its editing commands  are
       written in Lisp.

       Emacs  has  an  extensive  interactive  help facility, but the facility
       assumes that you know how to  manipulate  Emacs  windows  and  buffers.
       CTRL-h  (backspace  or CTRL-h) enters the Help facility.  Help Tutorial
       (CTRL-h t) requests an interactive tutorial which can  teach  beginners
       the  fundamentals  of  Emacs in a few minutes.  Help Apropos (CTRL-h a)
       helps you find a command given its functionality, Help Character (CTRL-
       h c) describes a given character's effect, and Help Function (CTRL-h f)
       describes a given Lisp function specified by name.

       Emacs's Undo can undo several steps of modification to your buffers, so
       it is easy to recover from editing mistakes.

       GNU Emacs's many special packages handle mail reading (RMail) and send-
       ing (Mail), outline editing  (Outline),  compiling  (Compile),  running
       subshells  within Emacs windows (Shell), running a Lisp read-eval-print
       loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode), and automated psychotherapy (Doctor).

       There is an extensive reference manual,  but  users  of  other  Emacses
       should  have little trouble adapting even without a copy.  Users new to
       Emacs will be able to use basic features fairly rapidly by studying the
       tutorial and using the self-documentation features.

       Emacs Options

       The following options are of general interest:

       file    Edit file.

       +number Go  to  the  line  specified  by  number (do not insert a space
               between the "+" sign and the number).

       -q      Do not load an init file.

       -u user Load user's init file.

       -t file Use specified file as the terminal instead of using  stdin/std-
       -l file Load the lisp code in the file file.

       The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch editor:

       -batch  Edit  in  batch mode.  The editor will send messages to stderr.
               This option must be the first in the argument list.   You  must
               use -l and -f options to specify files to execute and functions
               to call.

       -kill   Exit Emacs while in batch mode.

       Using Emacs with X

       Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system.  If  you
       run Emacs from under X windows, it will create its own X window to dis-
       play in.  You will probably want to start the editor  as  a  background
       process so that you can continue using your original window.

       Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

       -name name
               Specifies  the  name  which  should  be assigned to the initial
               Emacs window.  This controls looking up X resources as well  as
               the window title.

       -title name
               Specifies the title for the initial X window.

       -r      Display the Emacs window in reverse video.

       -i      Use  the  "kitchen  sink" bitmap icon when iconifying the Emacs

       -font font, -fn font
               Set the Emacs window's font to that  specified  by  font.   You
               will  find the various X fonts in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts direc-
               tory.  Note that Emacs will  only  accept  fixed  width  fonts.
               Under  the X11 Release 4 font-naming conventions, any font with
               the value "m" or "c" in the eleventh field of the font name  is
               a  fixed  width font.  Furthermore, fonts whose name are of the
               form widthxheight are generally fixed width,  as  is  the  font
               fixed.  See xlsfonts(1) for more information.

               When  you  specify  a  font, be sure to put a space between the
               switch and the font name.

       -bw pixels
               Set the Emacs window's border width to  the  number  of  pixels
               specified by pixels.  Defaults to one pixel on each side of the

       -ib pixels
               Set the window's internal border width to the number of  pixels
               specified  by pixels.  Defaults to one pixel of padding on each
               side of the window.

               See  the  file  /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt  for a list of valid color

       -bg color
               On color displays, sets the color of the window's background.

       -bd color
               On color displays, sets the color of the window's border.

       -cr color
               On color displays, sets the color of the window's text  cursor.

       -ms color
               On color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.

       -d displayname, -display displayname
               Create the Emacs window on the display  specified  by  display-
               name.   Must be the first option specified in the command line.

       -nw     Tells Emacs not to use its special interface to X.  If you  use
               this  switch  when invoking Emacs from an xterm(1) window, dis-
               play is done in that window.  This must  be  the  first  option
               specified in the command line.

       You can set X default values for your Emacs windows in your .Xresources
       file (see xrdb(1)).  Use the following format:


       where value specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set
       default values for the following keywords:

       font (class Font)
               Sets the window's text font.

       reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
               If  reverseVideo's  value is set to on, the window will be dis-
               played in reverse video.

       bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon)
               If bitmapIcon's value is set to on,  the  window  will  iconify
               into the "kitchen sink."

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
               Sets the window's border width in pixels.

       internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
               Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.

       foreground (class Foreground)
               For color displays, sets the window's text color.

       background (class Background)
               For color displays, sets the window's background color.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
       geometry (class Geometry)
               Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as described above).

       title (class Title)
               Sets the title of the Emacs window.

       iconName (class Title)
               Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

       If  you  try to set color values while using a black and white display,
       the window's characteristics will default as  follows:  the  foreground
       color  will be set to black, the background color will be set to white,
       the border color will be set to grey, and the text  and  mouse  cursors
       will be set to black.

       Using the Mouse

       The  following  lists  the  mouse  button bindings for the Emacs window
       under X11.

       left                 Set point.
       middle               Paste text.
       right                Cut text into X cut buffer.
       SHIFT-middle         Cut text into X cut buffer.
       SHIFT-right          Paste text.
       CTRL-middle          Cut text into X cut buffer and kill it.
       CTRL-right           Select this window, then split it  into  two  win-
                            dows.  Same as typing CTRL-x 2.
       CTRL-SHIFT-left      X  buffer  menu--hold  the  buttons and keys down,
                            wait  for  menu  to  appear,  select  buffer,  and
                            release.   Move  mouse  out of menu and release to
       CTRL-SHIFT-middle    X help menu--pop up  index  card  menu  for  Emacs
       CTRL-SHIFT-right     Select  window  with  mouse,  and delete all other
                            windows.  Same as typing CTRL-x 1.


       You can order printed copies of the GNU  Emacs  Manual  from  the  Free
       Software  Foundation, which develops GNU software.  See the file ORDERS
       for ordering information.
       Your local Emacs maintainer might also have copies available.  As  with
       all  software  and publications from FSF, everyone is permitted to make
       and distribute copies of the Emacs manual.  The TeX source to the  man-
       ual is also included in the Emacs source distribution.


       /usr/local/info - files for the Info documentation browser (a subsystem
       of Emacs) to refer to.  Currently not much of Unix is documented  here,
       but  the  complete  text of the Emacs reference manual is included in a
       convenient tree structured form.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/src - C source files and object files

       Emacs.  They are stored here to reduce the size of Emacs proper.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/OTHER.EMACSES  discusses  GNU Emacs
       vs. other versions of Emacs.
       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/SERVICE lists people offering vari-
       ous  services  to assist users of GNU Emacs, including education, trou-
       bleshooting, porting and customization.
       These files also have information useful to  anyone  wishing  to  write
       programs  in  the Emacs Lisp extension language, which has not yet been
       fully documented.

       /usr/local/com/emacs/lock - holds lock files  that  are  made  for  all
       files  being modified in Emacs, to prevent simultaneous modification of
       one file by two users.

       /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt - list of valid X color names.


       There is a mailing list, bug-gnu-emacs@prep.ai.mit.edu on the  internet
       (ucbvax!prep.ai.mit.edu!bug-gnu-emacs  on UUCPnet), for reporting Emacs
       bugs and fixes.  But before reporting something as a bug, please try to
       be sure that it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding or a deliberate
       feature.  We ask you to read the section ``Reporting Emacs Bugs''  near
       the  end  of the reference manual (or Info system) for hints on how and
       when to report bugs.  Also, include the version number of the Emacs you
       are running in every bug report that you send in.

       Do  not  expect  a  personal  answer  to  a bug report.  The purpose of
       reporting bugs is to get them fixed for everyone in the  next  release,
       if  possible.   For  personal assistance, look in the SERVICE file (see
       above) for a list of people who offer it.

       Please do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list.  Send
       requests  to  be  added  to mailing lists to the special list info-gnu-
       emacs-request@prep.ai.mit.edu (or the corresponding UUCP address).  For
       more   information   about   Emacs   mailing   lists,   see   the  file
       /usr/local/emacs/etc/MAILINGLISTS.  Bugs tend actually to be  fixed  if
       they  can be isolated, so it is in your interest to report them in such
       a way that they can be easily reproduced.

       Bugs that I know about are: shell will not work with  programs  running
       in Raw mode on some Unix versions.


       Emacs  is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under
       the terms stated in the Emacs General Public License, a copy  of  which
       accompanies  each copy of Emacs and which also appears in the reference

       Copies of Emacs may sometimes be received packaged  with  distributions
       of  Unix  systems, but it is never included in the scope of any license
       covering those systems.  Such inclusion violates  the  terms  on  which
       distribution is permitted.  In fact, the primary purpose of the General
       Public License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other  restric-
       tions to redistribution of Emacs.

       Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.
       Joachim Martillo and Robert Krawitz added the X features.


       Copyright (c) 1995, 1999, 2000, 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission  is  granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version  1.1  or
       any  later  version  published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
       Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.

       This  document  is  part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
       Documentation License.  If you want to distribute this  document  sepa-
       rately  from  the  collection,  you  can  do so by adding a copy of the
       license to the document, as described in section 6 of the  license.   A
       copy  of  the  license  is included in the gfdl(1) man page, and in the
       section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License" in the Emacs  manual.

4th Berkeley Distribution       1995 December 7                       emacs(1)