DW Non-Displacement Inputs

Since a displacement input at position corresponds to
symmetrically exciting the right- and left-going traveling-wave
components and , it is of interest to understand what
it means to excite these components *antisymmetrically*. As
discussed in §4.3, an antisymmetric excitation of
traveling-wave components can be interpreted as a *velocity*
excitation. It was noted that localized velocity excitations in the
FDTD generally correspond to non-localized velocity excitations in the
DW, and that velocity in the DW is proportional to the *spatial
derivative* of the difference between the left-going and right-going
traveling displacement-wave components (see Eq. (14)). More
generally, the antisymmetric component of displacement-wave excitation
can be expressed in terms of any wave variable which is linearly
independent relative to displacement, such as acceleration, slope,
force, momentum, and so on. Since the state space of a vibrating
string (and other mechanical systems) is traditionally taken to be
position and velocity, it is perhaps most natural to relate the
antisymmetric excitation component to velocity.

In practice, the simplest way to handle a velocity input in a DW simulation is to first pass it through a first-order integrator of the form

to convert it to a displacement input. By the equivalence of the DW and FDTD models, this works equally well for the FDTD model. However, in view of §4.3, this approach does not take full advantage of the ability of the FDTD scheme to provide localized velocity inputs for applications such as simulating a piano hammer strike. The FDTD provides such velocity inputs for ``free'' while the DW requires the external integrator Eq. (38).

Note, by the way, that these ``integrals'' (both that done internally by the FDTD and that done by Eq. (38)) are merely sums over discrete time--not true integrals. As a result, they are exact only at dc (and also trivially at , where the output amplitude is zero). Discrete sums can also be considered exact integrators for impulse-train inputs--a point of view sometimes useful when interpreting simulation results. For normal bandlimited signals, discrete sums most accurately approximate integrals in a neighborhood of dc. The KW-converter filter has analogous properties.

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Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA), Stanford University

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