Rewriting the filter in state-space form,^{2}we have

(21) | |||

(22) |

where and . As is well known, the transfer function of a state-space model (A,B,C,D) is given by

(23) | |||

(24) |

where

(25) | |||

(26) |

Thus, under all choices of input or output, there is at most one real finite zero at .

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