Robust behavior in fixed-point implementations using short word
lengths, including perfect stability in the undamped case, can be
obtained by replacing the complex multiply in Equations (12-13)
with a damped version of the so-called ``modified coupled form'' (MCF)
sine oscillator [2]:

(27) | |||

(28) |

where , and nominally and . This recursion is highly insensitive to round-off error. When excited by an impulse ( ) with no damping (), the signals , viewed as coordinates in the complex plane, follow a fixed

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