
Table 5.3 gives zeropadding factors sufficient for keeping the bias below Hz, where denotes the sampling rate in Hz, and is the window length in samples. For fundamental frequency estimation, can be interpreted as the relative frequency error `` '' when the window length is one period. In this case, is the fundamental frequency in Hz. More generally, is the bandwidth of each sidelobe in the DTFT of a length rectangular, generalized Hamming, or Blackman window (any member of the BlackmanHarris window family, as elaborated in Chapter 3).
Note from Table 5.3 that the Blackman window requires no zeropadding at all when only % accuracy is required in peakfrequency measurement. It should also be understood that a frequency error of % is inaudible in most audio applications.^{6.10}