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Current waveguide brass instruments appear to capture the essential features of brass tones [14,15,20,21,60]. The horn itself is well understood up to the bell [6,8,3,7,21]. However, there is apparently no complete theory which describes what happens at the bell exit aperture [8]. For example, nonlinear vortex shedding has been measured downstream from the bell output [28].

Models for the brass-player's lips are rapidly developing [,18,1,14,46], and there appears to be a trend in the direction of the one- and two-mass models which have been used for years to model the vocal folds in speech [29]. It is clear that the lip model should vary with pitch since the motion of the lips qualitatively changes as the pitch increases [, see Figure 3].

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``Physical Modeling Synthesis Update'', by Julius O. Smith III, Computer Music Journal, vol. 20, no. 2 (summer), pp. 44-56, MIT Press, 1996.
Copyright © 2005-12-28 by Julius O. Smith III
Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA),   Stanford University
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