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Ladder Waveguide Filters

An important class of DWFs can be constructed as a linear cascade chain of digital waveguide sections, as shown in Fig.C.24 (a slightly abstracted version of Fig.C.19). Each block labeled $ k_i$ stands for a state-less Kelly-Lochbaum scattering junctionC.8.4) interfacing between wave impedances $ R_{i-1}$ and $ R_i$ . We call this a ladder waveguide filter structure. It is an exact bandlimited discrete-time model of a sequence of wave impedances $ R_i$ , as used in the Kelly-Lochbaum piecewise-cylindrical acoustic-tube model for the vocal tract in the context of voice synthesis (Fig.6.2). The delays between scattering junctions along both the top and bottom signal paths make it possible to compute all of the scattering junctions in parallel--a property that is becoming increasingly valuable in signal-processing architectures.

Figure C.24: Linear cascade, unit-delay, digital waveguide filter.
\includegraphics{eps/DWF}

To transform the DWF of Fig.C.24 to a conventional ladder digital filter structure, as used in speech modeling [299,366], we need to (1) terminate on the right with a pure reflection and (2) eliminate the delays along the top signal path. We will do this in stages so as to point out a valuable intermediate case.


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``Physical Audio Signal Processing'', by Julius O. Smith III, W3K Publishing, 2010, ISBN 978-0-9745607-2-4.
Copyright © 2014-06-11 by Julius O. Smith III
Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA),   Stanford University
CCRMA