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#### Converting the Desired Amplitude Response to Minimum Phase

Phase-sensitive filter-design methods such as the equation-error method implemented in invfreqz are normally constrained to produce filters with causal impulse responses.9.15 In cases such as this (phase-sensitive filter design when we don't care about phase--or don't have it), it is best to compute the minimum phase corresponding to the desired amplitude response [452].

As detailed in Fig.8.8, the minimum phase is constructed by the cepstral method [452].9.16

The four-pole, one-zero filter fit using invfreqz is shown in Fig.8.7.

 ```c = ifft(Sdb); % compute real cepstrum from log magnitude spectrum % Check aliasing of cepstrum (in theory there is always some): caliaserr = 100*norm(c(round(Ns*0.9:Ns*1.1)))/norm(c); disp(sprintf(['Cepstral time-aliasing check: Outer 20%% of ' ... 'cepstrum holds %0.2f %% of total rms'],caliaserr)); % = 0.09 percent if caliaserr>1.0 % arbitrary limit error('Increase Nfft and/or smooth Sdb to shorten cepstrum'); end % Fold cepstrum to reflect non-min-phase zeros inside unit circle: % If complex: % cf=[c(1),c(2:Ns-1)+conj(c(Nfft:-1:Ns+1)),c(Ns),zeros(1,Nfft-Ns)]; cf = [c(1), c(2:Ns-1)+c(Nfft:-1:Ns+1), c(Ns), zeros(1,Nfft-Ns)]; Cf = fft(cf); % = dB_magnitude + j * minimum_phase Smp = 10 .^ (Cf/20); % minimum-phase spectrum Smpp = Smp(1:Ns); % nonnegative-frequency portion wt = 1 ./ (fk+1); % typical weight fn for audio wk = 2*pi*fk/fs; [B,A] = invfreqz(Smpp,wk,NZ,NP,wt); Hh = freqz(B,A,Ns); figure(3); plot(fk,db([Smpp(:),Hh(:)])); grid('on'); xlabel('Frequency (Hz)'); ylabel('Magnitude (dB)'); title('Magnitude Frequency Response'); % legend('Desired','Filter'); ```

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