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Bowed String Synthesis Extensions

For maximally natural interaction between the bow and string, bow-hair dynamics should be included in a proper bow bodel [177]. In addition, the width of the bow should be variable, depending on bow ``angle''. A finite difference model for the finite width bow was reported in [354,355]. The bow-string friction characteristic should employ a thermodynamic model of bow friction in which the bow rosin has a time-varying viscosity due to temperature variations within a period of sound [551]. It is well known by bowed-string players that rosin is sensitive to temperature. Thermal models of dynamic friction in bowed strings are described in [430], and they have been used in virtual bowed strings for computer music [423,427,21].

Given a good model of a bowed-string instrument, it is most natural to interface it to a physical bow-type controller, with sensors for force, velocity, position, angle, and so on [424,296].

A real-time software implementation of a bowed-string model, similar to that shown in Fig.9.52, is available in the Synthesis Tool Kit (STK) distribution as Bowed.cpp. It provides a convenient starting point for more refined bowed-string models [278].


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``Physical Audio Signal Processing'', by Julius O. Smith III, W3K Publishing, 2010, ISBN 978-0-9745607-2-4.
Copyright © 2014-06-11 by Julius O. Smith III
Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA),   Stanford University
CCRMA