This did not go smoothly, but I got through it. Here is what I did:
rpm -q kernel rpm -e <older kernels>
Unfortunately, the preupgrade is so large that even one kernel in /boot is too many. (My /boot partition is only 200 MB, which, before preupgrade, was plenty.) I moved my last kernel files to / hoping to be able to delete them later. I figured that if the upgrade failed, I could boot up in single-user mode from any old Linux disk and move them back.