Craig's Publications          (goto short listing)

2005 Publications

  • Deguchi, Sachiko, and Craig Sapp. A Prototype for Melody Generation using Melodic Patterns.
  • Sapp, Craig. Online Database of Scores in the Humdrum File Format. ISMIR 2005, 11-15 September 2005; London. [ PDF Paper | PDF Poster  ]

    Abstract: KernScores, an online library of musical data currently consisting of over 5 million notes, has been created to assist projects dealing with the computational analysis of musical scores. The online scores are in a format suit-able for processing with the Humdrum Toolkit for Music Research, but the website also provides automatic trans-lations into several other popular data formats for digital musical scores.
  • Sapp, Craig. Visual Hierarchical Key Analysis in Computers in Entertainment, volume 3, No. 4 (Oct 2005). [ PDF Paper  ]

    Abstract: Tonal music is often conceived of as progressing through a sequence of key regions, usually starting and ending in the tonic key, with a journey away from the tonic key somewhere in the middle of the piece. This article presents a visual method of displaying the musical key structure of a composition in a single picture. The hierarchical plots can also show the relative strength of these key regions and how they develop out of the chordal substrate of the music.
  • Segnini, Rodrigo and Craig Sapp. Scoregram: Displaying Gross Timbre Information from a Score in Computer Music Modeling and Retrieval 2005PDF Paper  ]

    Abstract: This paper introduces a visualization technique for music similar to that of spectrograms which display time and frequency content, but with the addition of a multi-timescale aggregation that offers at-a-glance visual structures which are interpretable as the global timbre resulting from a normative performance of a score.

2005 Acknowledgements, Reviews and Citations to Web Resources

2004 Publications

  • Sapp, Craig, Yi-Wen Liu, and Eleanor Selfridge-Field. "Search-Effectiveness Measures for Symbolic Music Queries in Very Large Databases", ISMIR 2004, Barcelona, Spain. October 10-14, 2004. [ PDF | PPT Slides | PPS Slides | HTML Slides | PDF-1up | PDF-2up | PDF-6up ]

    Abstract: In the interest of establishing robust benchmarks for search efficiency, we conducted a series of tests on symbolic databases of musical incipts and themes taken from several diverse repertories. The results we report differ from existing studies in four respects: (1) the data quantity is much larger (c. 100,000 entries); (2) the levels of melodic and rhythmic precision are more refined; (3) anchored and unanchored serches were differentiated; and (4) results from joint pitch-and-rhythm searches were compared with those for pitch-only searches.

    Addendum: "How to Calculate Entropy-Rates from Match-Count Profiles" [PDF].

2004 Acknowledgements, Reviews and Citations to Web Resources

  • Pickens, Jeremy. Harmonic Modeling for Polyphonic Music Retrieval. Ph.D. Thesis. Univeristy of Massachuestts at Amherst, 2004. [ PDF ]
  • Computer Music Journal, Vol.28, page 71. [ PDF ]
  • Yang, Aaron. Generation of Vibrato in Expressive Performances in MIDI. [ webpage ]
  • Grigoriev, Mikhail. Fractal Music Generatorwebpage ]

2003 Publications

  • Mathews, M.V, G. Bennett, C. Sapp, A. Friberg and J. Sundberg. "A Marriage of the Director Musices Program and the Conductor Program" in the Proceedings (Volume 1) of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, 6-9 Aug 2003. [ PDF ]

    Abstract: This paper will describe an ongoing collaboration between the authors to combine the Director Musices and Conductor programs in order to achieve a more expressive and socially interactive performance of a midi file score by an electronic orchestra. Director Musices processes a "square" midi file, adjusting the dynamics and timing of the notes to achieve the expressive performance of a trained musician. The Conductor program and Radio-Baton allow a conductor, wielding an electronic baton, to follow and synchronize with other musicians, for example to provide an orchestral accompaniment to an operatic singer. These programs may be particularly useful for student soloists who wish to practice concertos with orchestral accompaniments.

2003 Acknowledgements, Reviews and Citations to Web Resources

  • Hewlett, Walter B. and Eleanor Selfridge-Field. "Base-40 Arithmetic for Notation-Based Applications" at Interactive MusicNetwork, 2003. [ PDF Abstract ]
  • Rho, Seung-Min and Een-Jun Hwang. "FMF (Fast Melody Finder): A Web-Based Music Retrieval System" Computer Music Modeling and Retrieval: International Symposium (CMMR) 2003, Montpellier, France, May 26-27, 2003. [ website ]
  • Lorenzo, Levy. Intelligent MIDI Sequencing with Hamster Control. Masters Thesis, Electrical Engineering, Cornell University, August 2003. [ PDF ]
  • Bosi, Marina and Richard Goldberg. Introduction to Digital Audio Coding and Standards. Kluwer Academic Press: Norwell, Massachusetts; 2003. ISBN 1-4020-7357-7. p. xxi. [ PDF ]
  • Mathematics of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) by Julius Smith. [ webpage ]

2002 Publications

  • Sapp, Craig and Sachiko Deguchi. "Digital Koto Music Scores." Information Processing Society of Japan's Forum on Information Technology (FIT), Tokyo, Sept. 2002. [ PDF | PowerPoint Slides ]

    Abstract: This paper describes a digital representation for koto music and a printing system for typesetting scores for koto performance. The printing system was designed in particular for non-Japanese koto students, since string numbers can be displayed in Arabic numerals rather than with kanji numbers. The format of the musical data closely resembles modern koto scores and can be converted into other types of data such as MIDI or standard Western musical notation.

2002 Acknowledgements, Reviews and Citations to Web Resources

  • Pfleger, Karl R. On-Line Learning of Predictive Compositional Hierarchies. Ph.D. Dissertation, Computer Science Department, Stanford University, 2002. [ PS.GZ ]
  • Clarisse, L.P., J.P. Martens, M. Lesaffre, B. De Baets, H. De Meyer and M. Leman. "An Auditory Model Based Transcriber of Singing Sequences" in the Proceedings of the International Conference on Music Information Retrieval (ISMIR) 2002. [ PDF ]
  • Wilkerson, Carr, Carmen Ng and Stefania Serafin. "The Mutha Rubboard Controller" in the Proceedings of the Conference on New Instruments for Musical Expression (NIME), Dublin, Ireland, May 24-26, 2002. [ PDF ]
  • D'Archangelo, Gideon. "Creating a Context for Musical Innovation: A NIME Curriculum" in the Proceedings of the Conference on New Instruments for Musical Expression (NIME) 2002, Dublin, Ireland, May 24-26, 2002. [ PDF ]
  • Pickens, Jeremy and Tim Crawford. "Harmonic Models for Polyphonic Music Retrieval". CIKM'02 November 4-9, 2002, McLean, Virginia. [ PDF ]
  • Pickens, Jeremy, et al. Polyphonic Score Retrieval Using Polyphonic Audio Queries: A Harmonic Modeling Approach. ISMIR 2002, Paris, France. [ PDF ]
  • Chordia, Parag. Liner notes CD recording "Tanmoy Bose: Solo Tabla". Bol Records: East Palo Alto, California; 2002. [ PDF ]
  • Huron, David. "Music Information Processing Using the Humdrum Toolkit: Concepts, Examples, and Lessons" in the Computer Music Journal 26:2 (Summer 2002). pp. 11-26. [ PDF ]
  • Good, Michael. MusicXML in Practice: Issues in Translation and Analysis. MAX 2002: International Conference Musical Application using XML; 19-20 Sep. 2002: State University of Milan, Italy. [ PDF ]

2001 Publications

  • Sapp, Craig. "Harmonic Visualizations of Tonal Music" in the Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference (ICMC) 2001, Havana, Cuba. pp. 423-430. [ Black & White PDF | Color PDF | PPT Slides | PPS Slides | HTML Slides | PDF-1up | PDF-2up | PDF-6up ]

    Abstract: Multi-timescale visualization techniques for displaying the output from key-finding algorithms are presented in this paper. The horizontal axis of the key graphs represents time in the score, while the vertical axis represents the duration of an analysis window used to select music for the key-finding algorithm. Each analysis window result is shaded according to the output keys tonic pitch. The resulting diagrams can be used to compare differences between key-finding algorithms at different time scales and to view the harmonic structure and relationships between key regions in a musical composition
  • de la Cuadra, Patricio, Aaron Master and Craig Sapp, "Efficient Pitch Detection Techniques for Interactive Music" in the Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference (ICMC) 2001, Havana, Cuba. pp. 403-406. [ PDF  ]

    Abstract: Several pitch detection algorithms are examined for use in interactive computer-music performance. We define criteria necessary for successful pitch tracking in real-time and survey four tracking techniques: Harmonic Product Spectrum (HPS), Cepstrum-Biased HPS (CBHPS), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and the Weighted Autocorrelation Function (WACF).

    Cited in 5 subsequent papers (2002-2004):

    1. Saul, Lawrence K., and Daniel D. Lee, Charles L. Isbell and Yann LeCun. "Real-Time Voice Processing with Audiovisual Feedback: Towards Autonomous Agents with Perfect Pitch" in the Proceedings on Neural Information Processing System 2002. [ PDF ]
    2. Velikic, Gordana, Edward L. Titlebaum and Mark F. Bocko. "Musical Note Segmentation Employing Combined Time and Frequency Analyses". International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP) 2004, Montreal, Canada. [ PDF ]
    3. Wieczorkowska, A., J. Wroblewski, P. Synak, and D. Slezak. "Application of Temporal Descriptors to Musical Instrument Sound Recognition" in the Journal of Intelligent Information Systems, 2003.
    4. Wilgen, Arne van. "Tonhöhenbestimmung für Verfahren der Melodieerkennung im Standard MPEG-7". Dissertation, Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Telekommunikationssysteme, 8 September 2003. [ PDF ]
    5. Wilson, Robert Scott. "First Steps Towards Violin Performance Extraction using Genetic Programming" [ PDF ]
  • Verplank, Bill, Craig Sapp and Max Mathews. "A Course on Controllers". CHI 2001 New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) Workshop; Seattle, Washington; April 2001. [ PDF ]

    Abstract: Over the last four years, we have developed a series of lectures, labs and project assignments aimed at introducing enough technology so that students from a mixture of disciplines can design and build innovative interface devices.

    Cited in 9 subsequent papers (2002-2004):

    1. Beamish, Tim, Karon MacLean, Sidney Fels. "Designing the Haptic Turntable for Musical Control" in the Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS 2003). 22-23 March 2003. pp 24-31.
    2. Beamish, Timothy, Kees van den Doel, Karon MacLean and Sidney Fels. "D'Groove: A Haptic Turntable for Digital Audio Control" in the Proceedings of the 2003 International Conference on Auditory Display. Boston, Massachusetts, 6-9 July 2003. [ PDF ]
    3. Beamish, Timothy, Karon Maclean, Sidney Fels. "Manipulating Music: Multimodal Interaction for DJs" in the Procceedings of the CHI 2004, 24-29 April 2004, Vienna, Austria. [ PDF ]
    4. Blaine, Tina and Sidney Fels. "Contexts of Collaborative Musical Experiences" in the Proceedings of the Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) 2003, Montreal, Canada. [ PDF ]
    5. D'Archangelo, Gideon. "Creating a Context for Musical Innovation: A NIME Curriculum" in the Proceedings of the Conference on New Instruments for Musical Expression (NIME) 2002, Dublin, Ireland, May 24-26, 2002. [ PDF ]
    6. Hatanaka, Motohide. "Ergonomic Design of a Portable Musical Instrument" in the Proceedings of the Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) 2003, Montreal Canada. [ PDF ]
    7. Hankins, Tim, David Merrill and Jocelyn Robert. "Circular Optical Object Locator" in the Proceedings of the Conference on New Instruments for Musical Expression (NIME), 2002, Dublin, Ireland, May 24-26, 2002. [ PDF ]
    8. Verplank, Bill, Michael Gurevich and Max Mathews. "The Plank: Designing a simple haptic controller" in the Proceedings of the Conference on New Intruments for Musical Expression (NIME), Dublin, Ireland, 24-26 May 2002. [ PDF ]
    9. Wilson, Scott, Michael Gurevich, Bill Verplank, and Pascal Stang. "Microcontrollers in Music HCI Instruction" in the Proceedings of the Conference on New Instruments for Musical Expression (NIME) 2003, Montreal, Canada. [ PDF ]
  • Selfridge-Field, Eleanor, Walter Hewlett, and Craig Sapp. "Data Models for Virtual Distribution of Music Scores" at WEDELMUSIC 2001. Firenze (Florence), Italy. pp. 62-70. [ PDF  ]

    Abstract: With the rise of portal sites for image-file download of musical scores, the electronic distribution of musical scores, an activity in progress of 15 years, has attracted increased attention. We describe several data models for score distribution and emphasize the one used in the MuseData archive of musical data (1984-). This archive (containing substantial quantities of the music of Bach, Handel, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Corelli, and Vivaldi) employs a "solar" model of supersets of musical data. From these files, score printing, sound generation, and logical information for musical analysis can be generated. The design, efficiencies, and shortcomings of this "write-once, convert-many" system are compared with models emphasizing generic musical-data interchange, and models in which music must be re-encoded for each new application. Finally, these considerations are examined in light of social practices and economic models traditionally associated with the print publication of music in Europe and the U.S.

2001 Acknowledgements, Reviews and Citations to Web Resources

  • Good, Michael. "MusicXML: An Internet-Friendly Format for Sheet Music". XML 2001 Conference Proceedings. [ PDF ]
  • Gurevich, Michael and Stephan von Muehlen. "The Accordiatron: A MIDI Controller for Interactive Music" CHI 2001 New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) Workshop; Seattle, Washington; April 2001. [ PDF ]
  • Wilkerson, Carr, Stefania Serafin and Carmen Ng. "Physical Model Synthesis and Performance Mappings of Bowl Resonators" in the Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference (ICMC), 2001. [ PDF ]
  • Sundberg, Johann, Anders Friberg, Max V. Mathews and Gerald Bennett. "Experiences of Combining the Radio Baton with the Director Musices Performance Grammar" at the Workshop on Current Research Directions in Computer (MOSART) Barcelona, Spain, Nov 15-17, 2001. [ PDF ]
  • Radio-Baton und 'Performance Rules': Entwicklung und Verbesserung eines Begleitinstruments für den Musikunterricht. [ webpage ]
  • SynthX 1.0 by Georg Bönn. [ webpage ]

2000 Publications

2000 Acknowledgements, Reviews and Citations to Web Resources

  • Brown, Lance. USB Radio: Digitally Controlled Audio over the Internet. Undergraduate Thesis. Department of Computer Science and Electric Engineering, University of Queensland, October 2000. [ PDF ]
  • Phillips, Dave. Linux Music and Sound. No Starch Press: San Francisco, California; 2000. ISBN 1-886411-34. pp 234-236. [  ]
  • The New Grove Dictionary of Music, 2nd ed. "Computers and music, sectionIV,9: Historical research: General issues". [  ]
  • Electronic Musician #49, August 2000. A Survey of Unconventional Musical Input Devices by Marty Cutler, Gino Robair and Bean. photo credit on page 54. [ PDF ]

1996 Publications

1996 Acknowledgements, Reviews and Citations to Web Resources

  • Speaking of Teaching, Vol.8, No.1, 1996. Stanford University Newsletter on Teaching: Course Pages on the World Wide Web. [ PDF ]
  • Chafe, Chris and Sile O'Modhrain. "Musical Muscle Memory and the Haptic Display of Performance Nuance. Proceedings of the ICMC, Hong Kong, 1996. [ PostScript ]

1991 Publications

  • Sapp, Craig. "Geometric Acceptances of the Detector Setup at LEGS". University of Virginia, Department of Physics 1991. [ PDF ]

    Abstract: The geometry of the detector setup in the LEGS facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory was simulated using the GEANT package from CERN. Several experiments will be done at LEGS, including 3HE(gamma, pp) and 3HE(gamma, pn), so the characteristics of outgoing nucleons were studied. Geometrical acceptance for the scintillating bars was calculated and compared with the results from the GEANT simulation.

1989 Publications

  • Sapp, Craig. "Design of a Support Stand for Large Plastic Scintillation Bars for Nucleon Detection". University of Virginia, REU 1989. [ PDF ]