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literature review

  1. Perceptual Evaluation of Vibrato Models
Vincent Verfaille, Catherine Guastavino, Philippe Depalle
Proceedings of the Conference on Interdisciplinary Musicology (CIM05)
  • spectral envelope modulation
  • frequency-dependent hysteresis behavior
  • test: preference for sounds with modulated spectral envelope
  • offers great literature review & background info on vibrato pitch, rate, extent, shape, and temporal evolution
  • provides equations for modeling FM, AM, SEM pulsations
  • vibrato is made of at least one of these three kind of modulations:
  1. amplitude modulation (predominant in wind and brass instr)
  2. frequency modulation (predominant in voice and string instr)
  3. spectral envelope modulation and hysteresis (existing in wind, brass, voice)
  • Questions & thoughts:
* How much of the analysis is instrument-specific, and how much is it performer/ context/ style-specific?
* It'd be interesting to see a more music-passage specific (higher level) analysis as opposed to instrument-specific modelling
  1. An Investigation of Vocal Vibrato for Synthesis
Robert Maher, James Beauchamp
  • focuses on vocal vibrato & presents a new panned-wavetable synthesis method
  • role of spectrum modulation
  • findings: "Inclusion of typical random fluctuations of vibrato rate, vibrato depth, and nominal sung frequency resulted in no quality preference over examples with constant values. Inclusion of vibrato-induced spectrum modulation resulted in a substantial improvement over examples having constant spectra."