Program Order

Flashbacks (2014-2022) - Constantin Basica

Restore Failed with Errors

Last Night

(Trigger warning: the video depicts a situation that may be perceived as suicide.)

Post-Music #33:2.2 (2021) - Constantin Basica

I Could Have Chosen the Other Title (2011) - Constantin Basica

- - -  INTERMISSION - - -

AI and the Heat Death of the Universe (2023) - Andrew A. Watts

Prologue

Phase I: The End of Reality as We Know It

Phase II: Solar Destruction

Interlude

Phase III: Black Hole Era

Heat Death of the Universe

Postscript

(Note: There are flashes of light and strobe effects at various points throughout the composition.)


Artist Biographies

Andrew A. Watts is a composer of chamber, symphonic, multimedia, and electro acoustic works that are regularly performed throughout North America, Europe, and Asia. His compositions have been premiered at world renowned venues such as Burning Man, Ravinia, Boston's Jordan Hall, Darmstadt, and the Holywell Music Room. Watts has written for many of the top new music groups today, including Ensemble Dal Niente, Ekmeles Vocal Ensemble, Proton Bern, Distractfold Ensemble, RAGE Thormbones, Splinter Reeds, Quince Vocal Ensemble, and Line Upon Line. Recently, Watts premiered a large-scale work, Silicon Valley Requiem, blending synthesized and live voices. He completed his D.M.A. in Composition at Stanford, received his master's with distinction from Oxford, and his bachelor's with academic honors from the New England Conservatory. He has been a featured composer at the MATA Festival (USA), impuls Academy (Austria), Rainy Days Festival (Luxembourg), Delian Academy (Greece), Young Composers Meeting (Netherlands), Cheltenham Music Festival (England), Course for New Music at Darmstadt (Germany), Composit Festival (Italy), Ostrava Days Institute (Czech Republic), highSCORE Festival (Italy), Wellesley Composers Conference (USA), Etchings Festival (France), Fresh Inc. Festival (USA), New Music on the Point (USA), and Atlantic Music Festival (USA). Watts is currently a Lecturer in Music Composition at UCSB’s College of Creative Studies.

Constantin Basica is a Romanian composer living in the San Francisco Bay Area, whose current work focuses on symbiotic interrelations between music, video, and performers. His works have been performed in Europe, North America, and Asia by artists and ensembles such as Ensemble Dal Niente, ELISION Ensemble, Distractfold, Mocrep, JACK Quartet, Spektral Quartet, line upon line, and RAGE Thormbones. He has been featured at World New Music Days (NZ), MATA Festival (NY), New York City Electroacoustic Music Festival (NY), Currents New Media Festival (NM), International Week of New Music (RO), George Enescu Festival (RO), International Festival for Video Art and Visual Music (MX), ICMC (CN/KR), and the SMC Conference (SE/DE/FR) among others. Constantin earned a DMA in Composition at Stanford University, and he holds an MA in Multimedia Composition from the Hamburg University of Music and Theatre (DE), as well as two BA degrees in Composition and Conducting from the National University of Music Bucharest (RO). In recent years, Constantin has been collaborating with other artists and researchers on projects involving Artificial Intelligence and music improvisation. Currently, Constantin is a postdoctoral scholar, lecturer, and the concert coordinator at Stanford’s Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA).


Program Notes

Flashbacks

Flashbacks is an audiovisual performance in two parts that have no apparent connection. First, in Restore Failed with Errors, I recycle audio and video material from my distant and recent past as a performer. The material is sliced into small fragments and then assembled into new forms. The second part, Last Night, presents the story of a person who is trying endlessly to escape from a time loop. On a deeper level, the two pieces in Flashbacks address the idea of making sense of one’s own past while also attempting to surpass its consequences.

        Credits

Restore Failed with Errors

Composer/Performer: Constantin Basica

Conductor: Nicolae Racu

Orchestra of the “Dinu Lipatti” Music High-School Bucharest (RO)

Last Night

Actor: Dragoș Ivaneț

Director: Lucian Racovițan

Composer/Videographer: Constantin Basica

Visual effects: Simona Fitcal

Featuring: Olga Berar, Simona Fitcal, Lucian Racovițan

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Post-Music #33:2.2

In a post-apocalyptic world, a man scavenges for sound-making objects to soothe his child.

This piece is a shortened version of Post-Music #33, originally commissioned and premiered by BRD Scene9 Residency, Bucharest (RO) in March 2021. It is, however, a reworked, standalone piece, and can be played back as such without reference to the longer version.

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I Could Have Chosen the Other Title

The Theory of Multiverse states that there is an infinite number of universes other than our own. These worlds coexist with ours simultaneously on a dimensional level and the realities in these universes differ from slightly to radically. It could be formulated like this: every action and decision we take in our life leads us on a certain path, which defines us as persons and shapes our reality. At the same time, we deviate from other paths, which could have taken us to other events. All these possibilities exist further in other dimensions.

 

I thought it was about time to make a piece together with another Me from such a universe. As sound material I have taken samples from my old acoustic pieces and processed them electronically. My other Me is very similar to me but has more courage and, because he is a DJ and electronic music producer—something I also once wished for myself—he has more groove and sometimes uses samples from other artists as well. Also, our musical taste is alike up to the point where, due to his life experiences and decisions, he just does things a little bit differently than me.

 

Communicating with Yourself from a parallel universe can be very dangerous—please do not try this at home!

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AI and the Heat Death of the Universe

Scientific predictions regarding the destruction of the Earth, extinguishing of our Sun, and ultimate dissipation of the universe come as an existential threat for many. Despite how dispassionately these theories are presented, these notions conjure fear because of our inherent will to live. They further provoke a sense of profound grief and helplessness when we consider that the continuation of our collective species may be threatened by a seemingly inevitable future.

How would an artificial intelligence react to or interpret this timeline of a distant future where not only are humans extinct, but all planets, stars, and the universe itself (as we know it) no longer exist? Can AI respond to the very human experience of this existential threat?

This work uses AI to generate images and videos based on a series of scientific predictions of the fate of the universe. The human-like faces were AI generated by https://thispersondoesnotexist.com/ and the cyborg faces were created with the help of Adobe Generative AI.

The form of each movement is based on dynamic systems, with a graphic rendering of each respective computer simulation shown below. The chaos expressed in these systems is sonified in an effort to appropriately pair the composition ideology with the similarly themed astrophysical conjectures. To this end, I would like to express my thanks to my brother, Fred Watts, for his assistance in Python. With his help, the code for each equation was parsed as raw data I then applied to various musical parameters.

The text was assembled by Andrew A. Watts from dozens of scientific and public domain sources, listed in the references section.

Prologue


Bifurcation diagram of the logistic map. The attractor for any value of the parameter r is shown on the vertical line at that r.1

In the dynamical systems branch of mathematics, a bifurcation diagram quantifies these changes by showing how fixed points, periodic orbits, or chaotic attractors of a system change as a function of bifurcation parameter. Bifurcation diagrams are used to visualize these changes.

TEXT:

As technology and research evolve and the world enters the third revolution of warfare following gunpowder and nuclear weapons, the artificial intelligence arms race ensues between the United States, China, and Russia, three countries with the world's top five highest military budgets.

Whoever becomes the leader in this sphere will become the ruler of the world.2

A weaponized conscious super-intelligence would affect current military technological supremacy and transform warfare;3 it is therefore highly desirable for strategic military planning and interstate warfare.4 Here, AI is viewed in geopolitically strategic terms and pursuing a military-civil fusion strategy to build on a nation's first-mover advantage in the development of AI.5

The Singularity would signal the end of the human era, as the new super-intelligence would continue to upgrade itself and would advance technologically at an incomprehensible rate.6

Some have long predicted that people will be able to upload their entire brains to computers and become digitally immortal.7

The Singularity will allow us to transcend these limitations of our biological bodies and brains ... There will be no distinction, post-Singularity, between human and machine.8

What does immortality mean on a cosmic scale?

How far into the future can the post-human exist?

Phase I – The End of Reality as We Know It


The Lorenz system is a system of ordinary differential equations first studied by mathematician and meteorologist Edward Lorenz. It is notable for having chaotic solutions for certain parameter values and initial conditions. In particular, the Lorenz attractor9 is a set of chaotic solutions of the Lorenz system. In popular media the "butterfly effect" stems from the real-world implications of the Lorenz attractor, namely that several different initial chaotic conditions evolve in phase space in a way that never repeats, so all chaos is unpredictable. This underscores that chaotic systems can be completely deterministic and yet still be inherently unpredictable over long periods of time. Because chaos continually increases in systems, we cannot predict the future of systems well. E.g., even the small flap of a butterfly’s wings could set the world on a vastly different trajectory, such as by causing a hurricane. The shape of the Lorenz attractor itself, when plotted in phase space, may also be seen to resemble a butterfly.

TEXT:

In 17,000 years: Best-guess recurrence rate for a "civilization-threatening" supervolcanic eruption large enough to spew one teraton (or one trillion tons) of pyroclastic material.10,11

In 50,000 years: The current interglacial period will end, sending the Earth back into a glacial period of the current ice age,12 regardless of the effects of anthropogenic global warming. However, anthropogenic climate change, if left unchecked, may delay this otherwise expected glacial period by as much as an additional 50,000 years, potentially skipping it entirely.13

In 500,000 years: Earth will likely have been hit by an asteroid of roughly 1 kilometer in diameter, assuming that it cannot be averted.14

In 10 million years: Estimated time for full recovery of biodiversity after a potential Holocene extinction, if it were on the scale of the five previous major extinction events.15 Even without a mass extinction, by this time most current species will have disappeared through the background extinction rate, with many clades gradually evolving into new forms.16,17

In 100 million years: Earth will likely have been hit by an asteroid comparable in size to the one that triggered the K–Pg extinction 66 million years ago, assuming this cannot be averted.18

In 250 million years: Rapid biological evolution may occur due to the formation of a supercontinent causing lower temperatures and higher oxygen levels.19 Increased competition between species due to the formation of a supercontinent, increased volcanic activity and less hospitable conditions due to global warming from a brighter Sun could result in a mass extinction event from which plant and animal life may not fully recover.20

In 500 million years: Estimated time until a gamma-ray burst, or massive, hyperenergetic supernova, occurs within 6,500 light-years of Earth; close enough for its rays to affect Earth's ozone layer and potentially trigger a mass extinction, assuming the hypothesis is correct that a previous such explosion triggered the Ordovician–Silurian extinction event. However, the supernova would have to be precisely oriented relative to Earth to have any such effect.21

In 500 to 600 million years: As water evaporates from the Earth's surface, rocks harden, causing plate tectonics to slow and eventually stop once the oceans evaporate completely.22 By this time, carbon dioxide levels will fall to the point at which C3 photosynthesis is no longer possible. All plants that utilize C3 photosynthesis (approximately 99 percent of present-day species) will die.23 The death of most plant life will result in less oxygen in the atmosphere, allowing for more DNA-damaging ultraviolet radiation to reach the surface. The rising temperatures will increase chemical reactions in the atmosphere, further lowering oxygen levels.24

In 800 to 900 million years: Carbon dioxide levels will fall to the point at which C4 photosynthesis is no longer possible.25 Without plant life to recycle oxygen in the atmosphere, free oxygen and the ozone layer will disappear from the atmosphere allowing for intense levels of deadly UV light to reach the surface.26 Eventually, all multicellular life will die out.27 The only life left on the Earth after this will be single-celled organisms.

In 1.1 billion years: The Sun's luminosity will have increased by 10%, causing Earth's surface temperatures to reach an average of around 116 degrees Fahrenheit.28,29

In 1.3 billion years: Eukaryotic life dies out on Earth due to carbon dioxide starvation. Only prokaryotes remain.30

In 2 billion years: High estimate until the Earth's oceans evaporate if the atmospheric pressure were to decrease via the nitrogen cycle.31

In 2.8 billion years: Earth's surface temperature will reach around 296 degrees Fahrenheit, even at the poles. High estimate until all remaining life goes extinct.32,33

In 3.5 to 4.5 billion years: The Sun's luminosity will have increased by 35 to 40%, causing all water currently present in lakes and oceans to evaporate, if it had not done so earlier. The greenhouse effect caused by the massive, water-rich atmosphere will result in Earth's surface temperature rising to 2,060 degrees Fahrenheit—hot enough to melt some surface rock.34,35,36,37

In 6.6 billion years: The Sun may experience a helium flash, resulting in its core becoming as bright as the combined luminosity of all the stars in the Milky Way galaxy.38

In 7.59 billion years: The Earth and Moon are very likely destroyed by falling into the Sun, just before the Sun reaches the tip of its red giant phase.39 Before the final collision, the Moon possibly spirals below Earth's Roche limit, breaking into a ring of debris, most of which falls to the Earth's surface.40

Phase II – Solar Destruction

The Rössler attractor41 is the attractor for the Rössler system, a system of three non-linear ordinary differential equations originally studied by Otto Rössler in the 1970s.42,43 These differential equations define a continuous-time dynamical system that exhibits chaotic dynamics associated with the fractal properties of the attractor.44 Rössler interpreted it as a formalization of a taffy-pulling machine.45

TEXT:

In 100 to 150 billion years: All the approximately 47 galaxies46 of the Local Group will coalesce into a single large galaxy.47 The Universe's expansion causes all galaxies beyond the former Milky Way's Local Group to disappear beyond the cosmic light horizon, removing them from the observable universe.48,49 Therefore, intergalactic transportation and communication beyond the Local Supercluster becomes causally impossible.50

In 1 trillion years: Low estimate for the time until star formation ends in galaxies as galaxies are depleted of the gas clouds that they need to form stars.51 The Universe's expansion, assuming a constant dark energy density, multiplies the wavelength of the cosmic microwave background by 10 to the power of 29, exceeding the scale of the cosmic light horizon and rendering its evidence of the Big Bang undetectable.52

In 1.05 trillion years: Estimated time by which the Universe will have expanded by a factor of more than 10 to the power of 26, reducing the average particle density to less than one particle per cosmological horizon volume. Beyond this point, particles of unbound intergalactic matter are effectively isolated, and collisions between them cease to affect the future evolution of the Universe.53

In 2 trillion years: Estimated time by which all objects beyond our Local Group are redshifted by a factor of more than 10 to the power of 53. Even gamma rays that they emit are stretched so much that their wavelengths are greater than the physical diameter of the horizon. The resolution time for such radiation will exceed the physical age of the universe. Therefore, these galaxies will no longer be detectable in any way.54

In 100 trillion years: High estimate for the time by which normal star formation ends in galaxies.55 This marks the transition from the Stelliferous Era to the Degenerate Era; with no free hydrogen to form new stars, all remaining stars slowly exhaust their fuel and die.56

In 1 quadrillion years: Estimated time until stellar close encounters detach all planets in star systems (including the Solar System) from their orbits.57 By this point, the Sun will have cooled to negative 450.67 degrees Fahrenheit.58

In 100 sextillion years: Around this timescale most stellar remnants and other objects are ejected from the remains of their galactic cluster.59

In 1 nonillion years: Estimated time until most or all of the remaining 1 to 10% of stellar remnants not ejected from galaxies fall into their galaxies' central supermassive black holes. By this point, with binary stars having fallen into each other, and planets into their stars, via emission of gravitational radiation, only solitary objects (such as stellar remnants, brown dwarfs, ejected planetary-mass objects, black holes) will remain in the universe.60

In 2 undecillion years: Estimated time for all nucleons in the observable universe to decay.61,62

In 30 tredecillion years: Estimated time for all nucleons in the observable universe to decay,63 assuming that the Big Bang was inflationary and that the same process that made baryons predominate over anti-baryons in the early Universe makes protons decay.64 By this time, if protons do decay, the Black Hole Era, in which black holes are the only remaining celestial objects, begins.65,66

Interlude


Computer simulation of Chua's circuit after 100 seconds, showing chaotic "double scroll" attractor pattern.67

Chua's circuit (also known as a Chua circuit) is a simple electronic circuit that exhibits classic chaotic behavior. This means roughly that it is a "nonperiodic oscillator"; it produces an oscillating waveform that, unlike an ordinary electronic oscillator, never "repeats". It was invented in 1983 by Leon O. Chua, who was a visitor at Waseda University in Japan at that time.68 The ease of construction of the circuit has made it a ubiquitous real-world example of a chaotic system, leading some to declare it "a paradigm for chaos".69

[Instrumental]

Phase III – Black Hole Era

State Orbits of the Wang Four-Wing Chaotic System The slave system is described by the controlled Wang dynamics.70

TEXT:

In 10 to the power of 43 years: Black holes will dominate the universe. They will slowly evaporate via Hawking radiation.71 A black hole with a mass of around 1 solar mass will vanish in around 2 times 10 to the power of 64 years. As the lifetime of a black hole is proportional to the cube of its mass, more massive black holes take longer to decay. A supermassive black hole with a mass of 100 billion solar masses will evaporate in around 2 times 10 to the power of 93 years.72

Later still, larger black holes of up to 100 trillion solar masses may form during the collapse of superclusters of galaxies. Even these would evaporate over this timescale. Though largest black holes in the universe are predicted to continue to grow.73 The hole then provides a temporary source of light during the general darkness of the Black Hole Era.74

In 10 to the power of 100 years (or 1 googol years): After all the black holes have evaporated (and after all the ordinary matter made of protons has disintegrated, if protons are unstable), the universe will be nearly empty. Photons, baryons, neutrinos, electrons, and positrons will fly from place to place, hardly ever encountering each other. Gravitationally, the universe will be dominated by dark matter, electrons, and positrons (not protons).75

By this era, with only very diffuse matter remaining, activity in the universe will have tailed off dramatically (compared with previous eras), with very low energy levels and very large time scales. Other low-level annihilation events will also take place, albeit very slowly. The universe now reaches an extremely low-energy state.76

Heat Death of the Universe

Image: Three Body trajectory example.77


TEXT:

The heat death of the universe (also known as the Big Chill or Big Freeze)78,79 is a hypothesis on the ultimate fate of the universe, which suggests the universe will evolve to a state of no thermodynamic free energy and will, therefore, be unable to sustain processes that increase entropy. Heat death does not imply any particular absolute temperature; it only requires that temperature differences or other processes may no longer be exploited to perform work. In the language of physics, this is when the universe reaches thermodynamic equilibrium.

The result would inevitably be a state of universal rest and death, if the universe were finite and left to obey existing laws. But it is impossible to conceive a limit to the extent of matter in the universe; and therefore, science points rather to an endless progress, through an endless space, of action involving the transformation of potential energy into palpable motion and hence into heat, than to a single finite mechanism, running down like a clock, and stopping forever.80

Postscript

Johann Sebastian Bach Sinfonia 7 in E minor, BWV 793


TEXT:

The cosmos is a cold and indifferent place,

unfriendly to human aims and principles.

It provides no foundation for our hopes and dreams,

but instead, is a dark and empty void.

Nihilism is the only reasonable conclusion when confronted with the true nature of reality.

...A place of nothingness

…non-possession

and…non-attachment

…which is the total end of death and decay.81

After death the universe reappears somewhere else.

After death the universe does not reappear.

After death the universe both does and does not reappear.

After death the universe neither does nor does not reappear.82

        

References

1 Image of bifurcation diagram via Morn, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons         

2 Gigova R. "Who Vladimir Putin thinks will rule the world". CNN. [updated 2017 Sep 2; cited 2023 Dec 4]. Available from: https://www.cnn.com/2017/09/01/world/putin-artificial-intelligence-will-rule-world/index.html                  

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37 Kasting, J. F. (June 1988). "Runaway and moist greenhouse atmospheres and the evolution of earth and Venus". Icarus. 74 (3): 472–494. Bibcode:1988Icar...74..472K.         doi:10.1016/0019-1035(88)90116-9. PMID 11538226. Archived from the original on 7 December 2019. Retrieved 6 September 2018.

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39 Schroder, K. P.; Connon Smith, Robert (2008). "Distant Future of the Sun and Earth Revisited". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 386 (1): 155–163. arXiv:0801.4031. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.386..155S. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13022.x. S2CID 10073988.

40 Powell, David (22 January 2007). "Earth's Moon Destined to Disintegrate". Space.com. Tech Media Network. Archived from the original on 27 June 2019. Retrieved 1 June 2010.         https://www.space.com/3373-earth-moon-destined-disintegrate.html         

41 Image of example Rössler attractor shown above by Shiyu Ji, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons

42 Rössler, O. E. (1976), "An Equation for Continuous Chaos", Physics Letters, 57A (5): 397–398, Bibcode:1976PhLA...57..397R, doi:10.1016/0375-9601(76)90101-8.

43 Rössler, O. E. (1979), "An Equation for Hyperchaos", Physics Letters, 71A (2, 3): 155–157,         Bibcode:1979PhLA...71..155R, doi:10.1016/0375-9601(79)90150-6.        

44 Peitgen, Heinz-Otto; Jürgens, Hartmut; Saupe, Dietmar (2004), "12.3 The Rössler Attractor", Chaos and Fractals: New Frontiers of Science, Springer, pp. 636–646.

45 Rössler, Otto E. (1983-07-01). "The Chaotic Hierarchy". Zeitschrift         für Naturforschung A. 38 (7): 788–801. doi:10.1515/zna-1983-0714. ISSN 1865-7109.

46 "The Local Group of Galaxies". Students for the Exploration and Development of Space. Archived from the original on 7 January 2019. Retrieved 2 October 2009. http://www.messier.seds.org/more/local.html                  

47 Adams, Fred C.; Laughlin, Gregory (1997). "A dying universe: the long-term fate and evolution of astrophysical objects". Reviews         of Modern Physics. 69 (2): 337–372. arXiv:astro-ph/9701131.         Bibcode:1997RvMP...69..337A. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.69.337. S2CID 12173790.

48 Loeb, Abraham (2011). "Cosmology with Hypervelocity Stars". Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics. Harvard University. 2011 (4): 023. arXiv:1102.0007.         Bibcode:2011JCAP...04..023L. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2011/04/023. S2CID 118750775.

49 Ord, Toby (5 May 2021). "The Edges of Our Universe". arXiv:2104.01191 [gr-qc].

50 Adams, Fred C.; Laughlin, Gregory (1997).

51 Adams, Fred C.; Laughlin, Gregory (1997).

52 Loeb, Abraham (2011).

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54 Krauss, Lawrence M.; Starkman, Glenn D. (March 2000). "Life, The Universe, and Nothing: Life and Death in an Ever-Expanding         Universe". The Astrophysical Journal. 531 (1): 22–30. arXiv:astro-ph/9902189. Bibcode:2000ApJ...531...22K. doi:10.1086/308434. ISSN 0004-637X. S2CID 18442980.

55 Adams, Fred C.; Laughlin, Gregory (1997).

56 Adams, Fred; Laughlin, Greg (1999). The Five Ages of the Universe. New York: The Free Press. ISBN 978-0684854229.

57 Adams, Fred C.; Laughlin, Gregory (1997).        

58 Barrow, John D.; Tipler, Frank J. (19 May 1988). The Anthropic Cosmological Principle. foreword by John A. Wheeler. Oxford:         Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0192821478. LC 87-28148. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2016.

59 John         Baez (7 February 2016). "The End of the Universe". math.ucr.edu. Archived from the original on 30 May 2009.         Retrieved 13 February 2021. https://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/end.html                  

60 Adams, Fred C.; Laughlin, Gregory (1997).

61 Nishino H, et al. (Super-K Collaboration) (2009). "Search for Proton Decay via p+ → e+π0 and p+ → μ+π0 in a Large Water Cherenkov Detector". Physical Review Letters. 102 (14): 141801. arXiv:0903.0676. Bibcode:2009PhRvL.102n1801N.         doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.141801. PMID 19392425. S2CID 32385768.

62 Tyson, Neil de Grasse; Tsun-Chu Liu, Charles; Irion, Robert (2000). One Universe: At Home in the Cosmos. Joseph Henry Press. ISBN 978-0309064880.

63 Adams, Fred C.; Laughlin, Gregory (1997).

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65 Adams, Fred C.; Laughlin, Gregory (1997).

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67 Shiyu Ji, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons

68 Matsumoto, Takashi (December 1984). "A Chaotic Attractor from Chua's Circuit" (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems. IEEE. CAS-31 (12): 1055–1058. doi:10.1109/TCS.1984.1085459. Retrieved 2008-05-01.        

69 Madan, Rabinder N. (1993). Chua's circuit: a paradigm for chaos. River Edge, N.J.: World Scientific Publishing Company. Bibcode:1993ccpc.book.....M. ISBN 981-02-1366-2.

70 GLOBAL SYNCHRONIZATION OF FOUR-WING CHAOTIC SYSTEMS BY SLIDING MODE CONTROL        - Scientific Figure on ResearchGate. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/State-Orbits-of-the-Wang-Four-Wing-Chaotic-System-The-slave-system-is-described-by-the_fig2_263581928 [accessed 5 Dec, 2023]

71 Adams, Fred C.; Laughlin, Gregory (1997).

72 Page, Don N. (1976). "Particle emission rates from a black hole: Massless particles from an uncharged, nonrotating hole".         Physical Review D. 13 (2): 198–206. Bibcode:1976PhRvD..13..198P. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.13.198.. See in particular equation (27).

73 Frautschi, S. (1982). "Entropy in an expanding universe". Science. 217 (4560): 593–599. Bibcode:1982Sci...217..593F.         doi:10.1126/science.217.4560.593. PMID 17817517. S2CID 27717447. See page 596: table 1 and section "black hole decay" and previous sentence on that page

Since we have assumed a maximum scale of gravitational binding – for instance, superclusters of galaxies – black hole formation eventually comes to an end in our model, with masses of up to 1014M☉ ... the timescale for black holes to radiate away all their energy ranges ... to 10109 years for black holes of up to 1014M☉.

74 Adams, Fred; Laughlin, Greg (1999).

75 Adams, Fred; Laughlin, Greg (1997).

76 Ibid.

77 Fizell, Z. (2022, May 30). Use Python to Create Three-Body Orbits. Towards Data Science. https://towardsdatascience.com/use-python-to-create-three-body-orbits-329ffb5b2627

78 WMAP – Fate of the Universe, WMAP's Universe, NASA.         Accessed online July 17, 2008. https://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/uni_fate.html         

79 Dyer, Alan (2007-07-24). Insiders: Space. Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers. pp. 40–41. ISBN 978-1-4169-3860-6.

80 Thomson, Sir William (5 March 1862). "On the Age of the Sun's Heat". Macmillan's Magazine. Vol. 5. pp. 388–93.         https://zapatopi.net/kelvin/papers/on_the_age_of_the_suns_heat.html                  

81 The culmination of the path that the Buddha taught was nirvana, "a place of nothingness…non-possession and…non-attachment…[which is] the total end of death and decay."

Pasanno, Ajahn; Amaro, Ajahn (October 2009). "Knowing, Emptiness and the Radiant Mind" (PDF). Forest Sangha Newsletter (88): 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2019.         https://web.archive.org/web/20180612141202/http://www.fsnewsletter.amaravati.org/pdf/FSN_88_October_2009.pdf 

82 Modified from Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta: To Vacchagotta on Fire. Translated by Bhikkhu, Thanissaro. 1997. Archived from the original on 6 June 2019. Retrieved 24 June 2019 – via https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.072.than.html.

The Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta records a conversation between the Buddha and an individual named Vaccha that further elaborates on this. In the sutta, Vaccha asks the Buddha to confirm one of the following, with respect to the existence of the Buddha after death:

After death a Buddha reappears somewhere else;

After death a Buddha does not reappear;

After death a Buddha both does and does not reappear;

After death a Buddha neither does nor does not reappear.


Acknowledgements

With support from:

College of Creative Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara

Museum of Sensory and Movement Experiences, Santa Barbara

Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA), Stanford University

Poster designed by Andrew A. Watts