Terminal shell commands

There is a lot of information inside the “manual” man pages for almost every Unix shell command. Also most commands suggested here should work on a (ssh) secure shell environment.

At CCRMA the shell of choice is the C-shell. There should be a .cshrc file in your home directory and familiarity with its meaning can be really helpful on getting acquainted with the behavior of your terminal window. You can write scripts or shortcuts which can be stored on your .cshrc file and therefore this means that you can have your own shell commands. You can find more information in the man pages or in gnu-help or simply, gnu A good source for information and tutorials on Unix commands can be found at, Unixhelp If you have read the Unix section of this guide you will find the following commands 'very' useful:

- General and file manipulation commands:

Command Description
Get information or help about a command
Locate commands by keyword look up
List directory contents
Path of working directory
Change working directory
Move file or change name
Copy file
Make directory
Remove files and directories
mount /mnt/zip
Mount zip disk on directory /mnt/zip

- Commands for printing:

Command Description
lpr file.ps
Print in the default printer (knoll)
lpr -P np2 file.ps
Print in the trailer's printer
Show printer jobs in the queue
Remove the last job submitted if it is in the queue
lprm -np2 25
Remove job 25 in spool queue np2

WARNING !!! PLEASE, DO NOT use the lpr command to print Adobe Acrobat “pdf' files or postcript definition files. Open Acrobat Reader instead and print from within inside Acrobat Reader or use the command pdf2ps to convert to a “ps” postscript file.

- Postcript utilities:

As a wonderful ecological solution suggested by Julius Smith and to save some trees the following commands will let to print two pages in one from a postscript file. You type:

psnup -n 2 infile.ps > outfile.ps

psnup -pletter -n 2 infile.ps > outfile_2up.ps

To print an A4 formatted document you need to re size it to the American standard “letter-size”. For this, you use the command psresize in the following way:

psresize -PA4 -pletter infile.ps > outfile.ps

- Synchronize a directory:

Suppose you have moved contents of one your local directories to CCRMA's “/zap” directory and make changes to one of the files in the “/zap” directory. To synchronize or update your changed file to the original file in the original directory, you use the 'rsync' command as follows:

         rsync  -av /zap/dir/ $\sim$/dir/       

To update or synchronize just a file:

         rsync -av /zap/yourfile $\sim$/dir/yourfile       

- Connectivity and file transfer and text manipulation:

Command Description
look for all ccrma users
finger login@
look for particular user
secure login on remote machine
secure file copy from or to machine
talk login@cmnXX
talk to other user on this terminal
look for file
output contents of a file
search for a string of text

- Editors and publishing:

Command   Description
  text editor
  development text editor
  compile a LATEXfile
  convert a dvi file to postscript
  convert a ps file into a pdf file

- Account Administration:

Command Description
change permissions on files and directories
change password

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Created and Mantained by Juan Reyes