The seventeen pipes of the shô are made of thin bamboo tubes of equal thickness but of different length, hence each pipe has a different pitch. A metal reed is attached to a wooden pipe connected to the bottom of each bamboo pipe. When this reed vibrates, the air between the reed and the closed upper end of the bamboo pipe resonates and produces sound. Each bamboo pipe has a finger hole that needs to be covered for the pipe to emit sound; therefore pipes with uncovered holes are mute.

Finally the seventeen pipes are set in a circular wind chamber in which air is blown through the mouthpiece, as shown in Fig. 1 and 2.






Shô – front

Shô – back

Figure 1






                                             ISHIKAWA Ko




                                            ISHIKAWA Ko

Shô – embouchure

Figure 2


The shô cannot produce sound when the reed is moist, so performers must occasionally dry the area where the reeds are attached. To that effect, performers have on their side an electrical heater as shown in Figure 3.



Electrical heater used to keep the reeds dry

Figure 3


The shô player breathes through the instrument producing sound while inhaling and exhaling. Moreover, there is a direct relationship between the breathing pattern and dynamics since exhaling produces a crescendo, and inhaling a decrescendo.


Tuning and transposition

The shô sounds one octave higher than written and it is tuned to an A-430Hz.


Range and fingerings

Of the seventeen bamboo pipes, only fifteen produce sound. Figure 4 shows the 15 pitches available on the shô, while Figure 5 shows the specific assignment between pitches and fingers.



The 15 pitches playable on the shô

Figure 4


Specific assignment between fingers and pitches

Figure 5


There is a basic fingering rule for the shô that stipulates that fingers assigned to more than one pitch can only play one of them at one time. For example, the A4 and D5 (written A3 and D4) cannot be played simultaneously because they are both fingered with the left hand (L.H.) ring finger. The exception to this rule concerns the index of the right hand (R.H.) that can cover the E5 and F#5 (written E4 and F#4) simultaneously.






























Four spectra of the sound of the shô

Figure 6


Figure 6 introduces the spectra of four sounds  of the shô (A4, E5, A6, and E6 : written A3, E4, A4, and E5)  that essentially cover its entire range, and help illustrate two particularities about the shô’s sound. First, they demonstrate that the shô’s spectral envelope barely changes over its entire range, suggesting that its sound is homogeneous throughout its range. This is rather unusual since the sound of a woodwind instrument is commonly darker in its lower register and brighter in its highest one. Yet, a comparative listening of the shô’s lowest note (A4, written A3) with its penultimate one (E6 written E5) confirms the overall uniformity of the shô’s sound.

Second, Figure 6 reveals that throughout its range the main energy remains essentially on the 2nd and 4th partials of the sound, accounting in part for the bright and pure quality of its isolated tones.


Traditional performance practices

Articulation: Traditionally, tonguing is not used with Japanese wind instruments. Instead phrases are shaped by control of the airflow.

The range of the shô is limited and the volume of each individual pipe is rather weak, hence the function of the shô when performing in the Gagaku orchestra is to play chords called aitake. These chords of up to six pitches can be extremely expressive. Figure 7 shows and identifies the eleven chords used in the repertoire. For all of them, except for and hi, the lowest note is considered the chord’s fundamental tone and it is shown as a black note.



11 Aitakes used in Gagaku

Figure 7


The motion from one aitake to the next is accomplished by a subtle and gradual shift in fingering positions, called te-utsuri. It is sufficient to write the aitakes as chords, the experienced shô player will know how to perform the melodic and rhythmic transformation from one to the other, and although these shifts are melodically and rhythmically set, they are extremely expressive. The following example present a ­te-utsuri  from gyô to ichi back to gyô.









Rhythmic approximation of the te-utsuri from gyô to ichi back to gyô.

Example 1


Example 2 shows the basic melody of Etenraku's section B and C, and its rhythmic accompaniment. Its purpose is to show in context how the shô uses its various aitakes to color the melodic tones. The phrase structure is of four measures of four beats, and each section is composed of two phrases.The piece is in Hyô-jô mode (E Aeolian) and the basic melody is centered on the pitches: E, B, and A, three of the four fundamental pitches of the Japanese modal system. (For more information see the chapter Theory/Pitch).

Example 2 also shows approximations of the shô's motions from one aitake to another. As a point of clarification, the lowest pitch of the shô's aitake is considered to be its melodic tone. Hence, Example 2 confirms that for the most part, the shô's harmonic changes are rhythmically in phase with the melodic tones. This being said, the third beat of measure 14 shows that this is not always the case. Here the basic melodic tone 'A' is harmonized with the aitake based on 'B' (Ichi) instead of the one based on 'A' (Kotsu). We speculate that in this context the aitake based on 'B' (Ichi) behaves as a passing chord between the aitakes Ku (C#) and Kotsu (A), in doing so, the shô delays the arrival point of the aitake Kotsu (A) so that it comes in phase with the taiko's obachi. (For more information see the chapter on Theory/Rhythm).

The excerpt is performed by the ensemble Reigakusha.

The basic melody of Etenraku's section B and C and how it is articulated by the shô

Example 2


New performance practices

Articulation: Depending on the performer abilities, staccato, single- double- and triple-tonguing can be used.

Drone: While the shô is primarily a harmonic instrument, it can perform melodies or even melodies that transform into a timbre. The use of drone is particularly well suited for that effect. The next example shows the same melody accompanied by two different drones






Example 3



Flutter tongue: This is the common technique used by flutist where a performer flutters his/her tongue to make the characteristic "Frrrrr" sound. Performing an isolated alveolar trill while playing a pitch produces the effect. This technique is playable throughout the register of the shô. Flutter tongue performed when inhaling differs from the one played exhaling as illustrated in Example 4.

Flutter while exhaling - loud
Flutter while inhaling - loud
Flutter while exhaling - soft
Flutter while inhaling - soft
Example 4


Attacked chords:  The sudden attack of a chord or the rapid change of dynamic over a sustained chord is very effective.

Flutter and attacked chords

Example 5

The mexican composer Julio Estrada (b.1943) worked in collaboration with Ko Ishikawa to incorporate new techniques for the shô in his opera Pedro Páramo: Doloritas (2006). Some of these techniques involved the use of the voice, blowing with various pressures and vibratos, as well as breathing effects.

Use of the voice

It is possible to sing while playing but the control of the pitch is extremely difficult. Results are best when pitches are indicated as low, high or as gestures rather than precise tones, as shown in Examples 6A and 6B.


Singing a low tone while playing
Singing a high tone while playing
Example 6A


Singing vocal gestures while playing

Example 6B


Use of various pressures

Using various pressures affect primarily the attack of the sound. As pressure decreases the synchronicity between the entrances of the various tones of the aitake (otsu in our example), breaks apart as heard in Example 7A. The effect is lost when the change of pressure is continuous, as confirmed with Example 7B.


Discrete change of pressure

Example 7A

Continuous change of pressure

Example 7B


Use of various speeds of vibrato

It is possible to indicate the changing speed of the vibrato by either using graphic notation (with changing sinusoidal curves) or by using a ratio that shows that rate of the vibrato, as demonstrated in Example 8 where 1/2", 1/3", and 1/4" means respectively, 2, 3, 4 vibrato-beats per seconds.


Control off various speeds of vibrato
Example 8A - Discrete transformation
Example 8B - Continuous transformation



It is possible to create breath noise while playing. The production of 'white-noise' (performed with tight lips) and 'colored-noise' (performed with looser lips but strong breath) is also possible but not while playing. In all cases, the use of breath is indicated with text in the score, as shown in Examples 9A, 8B, and 8C. The arrows in Example 9A shows the breath-in and -out pattern.


Otsu with breathing

Example 9A

White noise

Example 9B

Colored noise

Example 9C