Lecture Slides

A series of images of the lecture slides...


"orchestra of loudspeakers" vs. "simulation of space".

"in ear rendering" vs. "cinema systems" vs. "simulation of space"

Basic stuff in SuperCollider

  • Out: send to any bus
  • Pan2: 2 channel equal power panning
  • see "/usr/share/SuperCollider/Help/UGens/Panners/" for more panning UGens

VBAP (Vector based amplitude panning)

Here's an ICAD paper that references VBAP. ("ICAD" = "International Conference on Auditory Displays")


See a very complete introduction.

Slides from a presentation by Dave Malham at the CREATE symposyum on Sound is Space.


Head Related Transfer Functions (RTF's)

A set of publicly available hrtf measurements were done by Bill Gardner and Keith Martin at MIT, here's a pointer to the home page of the measurements (a postscript copy of the article. Take a look if you want the details (or wish to see a picture of Kemar the dummy, if you want your own you can get it here).

The hrtf data lives in /usr/ccrma/web/html/courses/220b-winter-2007/topics/spatialization/hrtf/. The "full" subdirectory is the one being used by the Kemar class in Ambiem. Each subdirectory inside "diffuse" contains data for a particular elevation (that is, the elev40 subdirectory holds all the hrtf data sets corresponding to +40 degrees of elevation. Inside that directory you will find the actual impulse responses for a collection of azimut angles. Each impulse response is a stereo soundfile (without header) that includes the responses for both ears. If you want to take a look at how the impulse response looks open the .dat file in snd, you will be prompted to enter some information regarding the file as it has no header: Fill the panel with chans: 2 (stereo) and "16 bit big-endian". You will get two channels showing with the impulse response for the left and right ears.

Here is another HRTF database, and an article about the way the measurements were conducted. This database includes measurements for 45 real subjects and the Kemar artificial head with two different sized pineas. Yet another HRTF database, at IRCAM.

A very complete and detailed tutorial at UC Davis (written by Richard Duda).

Musical Examples

A link to some background information on "On Space", by Juan Pampin

(the SC code that I used to play the piece...)