sources.list (5)


       sources.list - Package resource list for APT


       The  package  resource  list  is used to locate archives of the package
       distribution system in use on the system. At  this  time,  this  manual
       page  documents  only the packaging system used by the Debian GNU/Linux
       system.  This control file is located in /etc/apt/sources.list

       The source list is designed to support any number of active sources and
       a variety of source media. The file lists one source per line, with the
       most preferred source listed first. The format of each  line  is:  type
       uri  args. The first item, type, determines the format for args. uri is
       a Universal Resource Identifier (URI), which is a superset of the  more
       specific and well-known Universal Resource Locator, or URL. The rest of
       the line can be marked as a comment by using a #.


       The deb type describes a typical two-level  Debian  archive,  distribu-
       tion/component.  Typically,  distribution  is  generally one of stable,
       unstable, or testing, while component is one  of  main,  contrib,  non-
       free,  or  non-us.  The  deb-src type describes a debian distribution's
       source code in the same form  as  the  deb  type.  A  deb-src  line  is
       required to fetch source indexes.

       The  format  for  a  sources.list entry using the deb and deb-src types

       deb uri distribution [component1] [componenent2] [...]

       The URI for the deb type must specify the base of the Debian  distribu-
       tion,  from which APT will find the information it needs.  distribution
       can specify an exact path, in which case the components must be omitted
       and  distribution  must  end  with a slash (/). This is useful for when
       only a particular sub-section of the archive denoted by the URI  is  of
       interest.  If distribution does not specify an exact path, at least one
       component must be present.

       distribution may also contain a variable, $(ARCH), which expands to the
       Debian  architecture  (i386,  m68k,  powerpc, ...)  used on the system.
       This permits architecture-independent sources.list files to be used. In
       general  this  is  only  of interest when specifying an exact path, APT
       will automatically generate a URI with the current architecture  other-

       Since  only one distribution can be specified per line it may be neces-
       sary to have multiple lines for the same URI, if a subset of all avail-
       able distributions or components at that location is desired.  APT will
       sort the URI list after it has generated a complete set internally, and
       will  collapse  multiple  references  to  the  same  Internet host, for
       instance, into a single connection, so that it does  not  inefficiently
       establish  an FTP connection, close it, do something else, and then re-
       establish a connection to that same host. This feature  is  useful  for
       accessing  busy  FTP  sites  with  limits on the number of simultaneous
       anonymous users. APT also parallizes connections to different hosts  to
       deb stable main contrib non-free
       deb dists/stable-updates/


       The currently recognized URI types are cdrom, file, http, and ftp.

       file   The file scheme allows an arbitrary directory in the file system
              to  be  considered an archive. This is useful for NFS mounts and
              local mirrors or archives.

       cdrom  The cdrom scheme allows APT to use  a  local  CDROM  drive  with
              media  swapping.  Use  the  apt-cdrom(8) program to create cdrom
              entries in the source list.

       http   The http scheme specifies an HTTP server for the archive. If  an
              environment   variable   http_proxy   is  set  with  the  format
              http://server:port/, the proxy server  specified  in  http_proxy
              will  be used. Users of authenticated HTTP/1.1 proxies may use a
              string of the  format  http://user:pass@server:port/  Note  that
              this is an insecure method of authentication.

       ftp    The  ftp  scheme  specifies an FTP server for the archive. APT's
              FTP behavior is highly configurable; for  more  information  see
              the apt.conf(5) manual page. Please note that a ftp proxy can be
              specified by using the ftp_proxy  environment  variable.  It  is
              possible  to  specify  a  http  proxy  (http proxy servers often
              understand ftp urls) using this method and ONLY this method. ftp
              proxies  using  http specified in the configuration file will be

       copy   The copy scheme is identical to  the  file  scheme  except  that
              packages  are  copied  into  the cache directory instead of used
              directly at their location.  This is useful for people  using  a
              zip disk to copy files around with APT.


       ssh    The  rsh/ssh  method invokes rsh/ssh to connect to a remote host
              as a given user and access the files. No password authentication
              is  possible,  prior  arrangements  with RSA keys or rhosts must
              have been made.  Access to files on  the  remote  uses  standard
              find  and  dd  commands  to  perform the file transfers from the


       Uses the archive stored locally (or NFS mounted) at  /home/jason/debian
       for stable/main, stable/contrib, and stable/non-free.

       deb file:/home/jason/debian stable main contrib non-free

       As above, except this uses the unstable (development) distribution.

       deb file:/home/jason/debian unstable main contrib non-free

       Source line for the above

       deb stable contrib

       Uses  FTP  to  access  the  archive at, under the debian
       directory, and uses  only  the  unstable/contrib  area.  If  this  line
       appears  as  well as the one in the previous example in sources.list, a
       single FTP session will be used for both resource lines.

       deb unstable contrib

       Uses HTTP to access the archive at, under the  debian-
       non-US directory.

       deb stable/non-US main contrib non-free

       Uses  HTTP to access the archive at, under the debian-
       non-US directory, and uses only files found under  unstable/binary-i386
       on  i386 machines, unstable/binary-m68k on m68k, and so forth for other
       supported architectures. [Note this example only illustrates how to use
       the substitution variable; non-us is no longer structured like this]

       deb unstable/binary-$(ARCH)/


       apt-cache(8) apt.conf(5)


       See  the APT bug page <URL:>.  If you wish to
       report a bug in APT, please see /usr/share/doc/debian/bug-reporting.txt
       or the reportbug(1) command.


       APT was written by the APT team <>.

                                17 August 2003                 SOURCES.LIST(5)