# tex (1)

```

```

### NAME

```       tex, virtex, initex - text formatting and typesetting

```

### SYNOPSIS

```       tex [options] [commands]

```

### DESCRIPTION

```       This  manual page is not meant to be exhaustive.  The complete documen-
tation for this version of TeX can be found in the info file or  manual
Web2C: A TeX implementation.

TeX  formats  the interspersed text and commands contained in the named
files and outputs a typesetter independent file (called DVI,  which  is
short  for  DeVice  Independent).   TeX's capabilities and language are
described in The TeXbook.  TeX is normally used with a  large  body  of
precompiled  macros, and there are several specific formatting systems,
such as LaTeX, which require the support of several macro files.

This version of TeX looks at its command line to see what name  it  was
called  under.   Both  initex  and  virtex are symlinks to the tex exe-
cutable.  When called as initex (or when the --ini option is given)  it
can be used to precompile macros into a .fmt file.  When called as vir-
tex it will use the plain format.  When called under  any  other  name,
TeX  will use that name as the name of the format to use.  For example,
when called as tex the tex format is used, which is  identical  to  the
plain  format.  The commands defined by the plain format are documented
in The TeXbook.  Other formats that are often available  include  latex
and amstex.

The commands given on the command line to the TeX program are passed to
it as the first input line.  (But it is often easier to  type  extended
arguments  as the first input line, since UNIX shells tend to gobble up
or misinterpret TeX's favorite symbols, like  backslashes,  unless  you
quote them.)  As described in The TeXbook, that first line should begin
with a filename, a \controlsequence, or a &formatname.

The normal usage is to say
tex paper
to start processing paper.tex.  The name paper will be the ``jobname'',
and is used in forming output filenames.  If TeX doesn't get a filename
in the first line, the jobname is texput.  When looking for a file, TeX
looks  for  the  name  with  and  without  the default extension (.tex)
appended, unless the name already contains that extension.  If paper is
the  ``jobname'', a log of error messages, with rather more detail than
normally appears on the screen, will appear in paper.log, and the  out-
put file will be in paper.dvi.

TeX  will  look  in  the  first line of the file paper.tex to see if it
begins with the magic sequence %&.   If  the  first  line  begins  with
%&format  --translate-file tcxname  then  TeX will use the named format
and transation table tcxname to process the source  file.   Either  the
format  name  or the --translate-file specification may be omitted, but
not both.

The e response to TeX's error prompt causes the system  default  editor
for another filename; responding `null' gets you out of the loop if you
don't want to input anything.  You can also  type  your  EOF  character
(usually control-D).

```

### OPTIONS

```       This version of TeX understands the following command line options.

--fmt format
Use  format as the name of the format to be used, instead of the
name by which TeX was called or a %& line.

--help Print help message and exit.

--ini  Be initex, for dumping formats; this is implicitly true  if  the
program is called as initex.

--interaction mode
Sets  the  interaction  mode.  The mode can be one of batchmode,
nonstopmode, scrollmode,  and  errorstopmode.   The  meaning  of
these  modes is the same as that of the corresponding \commands.

--ipc  Send DVI output to a socket as well as the  usual  output  file.
Whether this option is available is the choice of the installer.

--ipc-start
As --ipc, and starts the  server  at  the  other  end  as  well.
Whether this option is available is the choice of the installer.

Sets path searching debugging flags according  to  the  bitmask.
See the Kpathsea manual for details.

--maketex fmt
Enable mktexfmt, where fmt must be one of tex or tfm.

--mltex
Enable MLTeX extensions.

--no-maketex fmt
Disable mktexfmt, where fmt must be one of tex or tfm.

--output-comment string
Use string for the DVI file comment instead of the date.

--progname name
Pretend  to  be program name.  This affects both the format used
and the search paths.

--shell-escape
Enable the \write18{command} construct.  The command can be  any
Bourne shell command.  This construct is normally disallowed for
security reasons.

--translate-file tcxname
Use the tcxname translation table.

give directly to TeX, because ~ is an active character,  and  hence  is
expanded,  not  taken as part of the filename.  Other programs, such as
Metafont, do not have this problem.

TEXMFOUTPUT
Normally, TeX puts its output files in  the  current  directory.
If  any  output file cannot be opened there, it tries to open it
in the directory specified in the environment variable TEXMFOUT-
PUT.  There is no default value for that variable.  For example,
if you say tex paper and the current directory is not  writable,
if  TEXMFOUTPUT  has  the  value  /tmp,  TeX  attempts to create
/tmp/paper.log (and /tmp/paper.dvi, if any output is  produced.)

TEXINPUTS
Search  path for \input and \openin files.  This should probably
files.   An empty path component will be replaced with the paths
defined in the texmf.cnf file.  For example,  set  TEXINPUTS  to
".:/home/usr/tex:"   to   prepend   the   current  direcory  and
``/home/user/tex'' to the standard search path.

TEXEDIT
Command template for switching to editor.  The default,  usually
vi, is set when TeX is compiled.

```

### FILES

```       The location of the files mentioned below varies from system to system.
Use the kpsewhich utility to find their locations.

tex.pool
Encoded text of TeX's messages.

texfonts.map
Filename mapping definitions.

*.tfm  Metric files for TeX's fonts.

*.fmt  Predigested TeX format (.fmt) files.

\$TEXMFMAIN/tex/plain/base/plain.tex
The basic macro package described in the TeXbook.

```

### BUGS

```       This version of TeX fails to trap arithmetic overflow  when  dimensions
are added or subtracted.  Cases where this occurs are rare, but when it
does the generated DVI file will be invalid.

```

```       mf(1), undump(1),
Donald E. Knuth, The TeXbook, Addison-Wesley, 1986, ISBN 0-201-13447-0.
Leslie  Lamport, LaTeX - A Document Preparation System, Addison-Wesley,
1985, ISBN 0-201-15790-X.
K.       Berry,        Eplain:        Expanded        plain        TeX,
ftp://ftp.cs.umb.edu/pub/tex/eplain/doc.
Michael Spivak, The Joy of TeX, 2nd edition, Addison-Wesley, 1990, ISBN
0-8218-2997-1.
system  for  Pascal  programs.   It  was  ported to Unix at Stanford by
Howard Trickey, and at  Cornell  by  Pavel  Curtis.   The  version  now
offered  with the Unix TeX distribution is that generated by the Web to
C system (web2c), originally written by Tomas Rokicki and Tim Morgan.

Web2C 7.3.1                      29 March 1999                          tex(1)
```